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The first grade is considered as the cornerstone of the student's education in school. In this respect, success at this level leads to interest and a positive attitude towards education and learning environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic factors of retention first-grade in primary schools in North Khorasan. The method in the first study was causal-comparative and the second study was a qualitative method. The statistical population included all first-grade students, their teachers, and parents in North Khorasan province. The sample size of the first study was 351 students who were divided into three groups of retention grade, weak academic achievement, and strong academic achievement students and in the second study were 30 teachers of first grade. Data collection tools included Parental Involvement in the Child’s Education Scale, Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, Researcher-Made Questionnaire, and semi-structured Interview Questionnaire. The results showed that parents of students with retention grade and weak academic achievement had poor participation in school activities. Teachers had more conflicting relationships with low and retention grade students. The results of the qualitative method indicated that obtained three components of attitude, cognitive, and behavioral for the teaching process that there were qualitative differences subcomponents between teachers of retention grade students and teachers without retention grade students. The results have implications for the prevention and reduction of retention grade rates in the first grade.
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