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Previous theoretical research (Authors, 2018a; Authors, 2018b) has revealed conceptual similarities among a number of mathematical learning theories and theories regarding language acquisition. This intersection of ideas led to a novel framework defining four stages of mathematical learning: Receiving, Replicating, Negotiating Meaning, and Producing. Through qualitative research methods and transcripts of student communication and work, this study empirically investigates this theoretical construct. The findings herein demonstrate that this construct is helpful in characterizing where students are in the process of learning mathematics and how to help them attain the next level in the stages of learning.
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