Varying Opportunities to Respond to Improve Behavior of Elementary Students with Developmental Disabilities

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Teresa D. Bolt Blake D. Hansen Paul Caldarella K. Richard Young Leslie Williams Howard P. Wills


This study investigated the effects of varying opportunities to respond when using a behavior management program with three elementary school students with developmental disabilities in a small group special education setting. These students exhibited both academic and behavioral difficulties. With the implementation of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) with low opportunities to respond (OTR), students increased their active engagement and correct responses, as well as decreased their disruptive behaviors. When CW-FIT with high OTR was implemented, students showed an even greater improvement than CW-FIT with low OTR. Higher rates of OTR resulted in higher levels of active engagement and correct responses and decreases in disruptive behavior for all three students. These results indicate that CW-FIT in combination with high OTR can help elementary school teachers manage students’ behavior and increase students’ correct responding when implemented in a small group special education setting.


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BOLT, Teresa D. et al. Varying Opportunities to Respond to Improve Behavior of Elementary Students with Developmental Disabilities. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, p. 327-334, mar. 2019. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 01 june 2020.


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