The Usage of Meaning Identification Technique in Measuring Reading Comprehension Skills

Main Article Content

Barış Esmer Ahmet Melih Güneş


In this study, it is aimed to determine at what level the Meaning Identification Technique (MIT) can measure the reading comprehension skills of the 4th grade primary school students and to test the validity and reliability of the MIT test with different types of texts. In the study carried out in survey model, MIT and Sentence Verification Technique (SVT) tests, which were developed by the researcher and are peculiar to narrative and informative texts, were used. The readability of the texts were tested with Cloze Tests (CT) developed specifically for each type of text. The study was carried out with the participation of 87 primary school 4th grade students in two primary schools randomly selected among the public schools in the city of Ankara. The results of the study demonstrated that MIT tests measure reading comprehension skills as reliable as SVT tests. While there was a significant difference between comprehension and the numbers of reading in narrative texts, it was found that there was no significant difference with the numbers of reading in informative texts. A great majority of students (approximately 75%) felt the need to read two or more times while making sense of the text. On the other hand, MIT tests are a significant predictor of Turkish course achievements.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
ESMER, Barış; GÜNEŞ, Ahmet Melih. The Usage of Meaning Identification Technique in Measuring Reading Comprehension Skills. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, p. 413-420, mar. 2019. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 apr. 2019.


Afflerbach, P. (1986). The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers’ importance assignment process. In J. A. Niles & R. V. Lalik (Eds.), National reading conference yearbook, 35. Solving problems in literacy: Learners, teachers and researchers (pp.30–40). Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.
Armbruster, B. B., Anderson, T. H., & Ostertag, J. (1987). Does text structure/summarization instruction facilitate learning from expository text? Reading Research Quarterly,22(3), 331-346.
Best, R. M., Floyd, R. G., & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Differential competencies contributing to children's comprehension of narrative and expository texts. Reading Psychology, 29(2), 137-164.
Carlisle, J. F. (1989). Diagnosing comprehension deficits through listening and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 39(1), 159-176.
Carlisle, J. F. (1999). Free recall as a test of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(1), 11-22.
Çiftçi, Ö., & Temizyürek, F. (2008). İlköğretim 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin okuduğunu anlama becerilerinin ölçülmesi. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(9), 109-129.
Diakidoy, I. A. N., Stylianou, P., Karefillidou, C., & Papageorgiou, P. (2005). The relationship between listening and reading comprehension of different types of text at increasing grade levels. Reading Psychology, 26(1), 55-80.
Durwin, C. C., & Sherman, W. M. (2008). Does choice of college textbook make a difference in students' comprehension? College teaching, 56(1), 28-34.
Greene, B. A., Royer, J. M., & Anzalone, S. (1990). A new technique for measuring listening and reading literacy in developing countries. International Review of Education, 36(1), 57-68.
İlter, İ. (2017). Farklı okuma yeteneklerindeki öğrencilere kelime anlamlarının öğretimi: bağlam temelli öğretimin okuduğunu anlama üzerinde kontrollü bir değerlendirmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 42(190), 437-463.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (2nd edition). Pearson.
Jones, M., & Smith, M. (2014). Traditional and alternative methods of measuring the understandability of accounting narratives. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 27(1), 183-208.
Kamberelis, G., & Bovino, T. D. (1999). Cultural artifacts as scaffolds for genre development. Reading Research Quarterly, 34(2), 138–170.
Kertoy, M. K., & Goetz, K. M. (1995). The relationship between listening performance on the sentence verification technique and other measures of listening comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), 320-339.
Kintsch, E., & Kintsch, W. (2005). Comprehension in children's reading comprehension and assessment (pp. 89-110). Routledge.
Kintsch, W. (1994). Text comprehension, memory, and learning. American Psychologist, 49(4), 294.
Kintsch, W., & Van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological review, 85(5), 363-394.
Klingner, J. K. (2004). Assessing reading comprehension. Assessment for effective intervention, 29(4), 59-70.
Lastrapes, R. E. E. (2015). Evaluating technical adequacy features of sentence verification technique as a general outcome measure of content knowledge. lsu doctoral dissertations. 1232. Retrieved from gradschool_dissertations/1232
Lehto, J. E., & Anttila, M. (2003). Listening comprehension in primary level grades two, four and six. Scandinavian Journal of Educational research, 47(2), 133-143.
Lynch, D. J. (1982). A construct validity study of the sentence verification technique as a method of measuring reading comprehension. Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014. 1745. Retrieved from
Marchant, H. G., Royer, J. M., & Greene, B. A. (1988). Superior reliability and validity for a new form of the Sentence Verification Technique for measuring comprehension. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(3), 827-834.
Marcotte, A. M., & Hintze, J. M. (2009). Incremental and predictive utility of formative assessment methods of reading comprehension. Journal of school psychology, 47(5), 315-335.
Marcotte, A. M., Rick, F., & Wells, C. S. (2018). Investigating the Reliability of the Sentence Verification Technique. International Journal of Testing, 1-22.
McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218-253.
Mestre, J. P., & Royer, J. M. (1991). Cultural and linguistic influences on Latino testing. ( Ed Gary D. Keller, James R. Deneen, Rafael J. Magallan.), Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education, (pp. 39-66). State University of New York Press.
Mooney, P., & Lastrapes, R. E. (2018). Replicating criterion validity in science content for the combination of critical content monitoring and Sentence Verification Technique. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 1-8.
Mooney, P., Lastrapes, R. E., Marcotte, A. M., & Amy Matthews Matthews, B. S. (2016). Validity of two general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement. Specialusis Ugdymas/Special Education, 1(34), 145-188.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2016). PISA 2015 results in focus.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitive research and evaluation methods. (3rd edition). Sage publications. California, Thousand Oaks
Pichette, F., Béland, S., De Serres, L., & Lafontaine, M. (2014). Psychometric validation of the Sentence Verification Technique to assess L2 reading comprehension ability. The Quantitative methods for Psychology, 10(2), 95-106.
Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols ofreading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum
Royer, J. (2001). Developing reading and listening comprehension tests based on the sentence verification technique (svt). Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(1), 30-41.
Royer, J. M., & Carlo, M. S. (1991). Transfer of comprehension skills from native to second language. Journal of Reading, 34(6), 450-455.
Royer, J. M., & Cunningham, D. J. (1981). On the theory and measurement of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 6(3), 187-216.
Royer, J. M., & Sinatra, G. M. (1994). A cognitive theoretical approach to reading diagnostics. Educational Psychology Review, 6(2), 81-113.
Royer, J. M., Abranovic, W. A., & Sinatra, G. M. (1987). Using entering reading comprehension performance as a predictor of performance in college classes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 19.
Royer, J. M., Carlo, M. S., Carlisle, J. F., & Furman, G. A. (1991). A new procedure for assessing progress in transitional bilingual education programs. Bilingual Review/La Revista Bilingüe,16(1), 3-14.
Royer, J. M., Greene, B. A., & Sinatra, G. M. (1987). The sentence verification technique: A practical procedure for testing comprehension. Journal of Reading, 30(5), 414-422.
Royer, J. M., Hastings, C. N., & Hook, C. (1979). A sentence verification technique for measuring reading comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11(4), 355-363.
Royer, J. M., Lynch, D. J., Hambleton, R. K., & Bulgareli, C. (1984). Using the sentence verification technique to assess the comprehension of technical text as a function of subject matter expertise. American Educational Research Journal, 21(4), 839-869.
Royer, J. M., Marchant, H. G., Sinatra, G. M., & Lovejoy, D. A. (1990). The prediction of college course performance from reading comprehension performance: Evidence for general and specific prediction factors. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 158-179.
Singer, M., Harkness, D., & Stewart, S. T. (1997). Constructing inferences in expository text comprehension. Discourse Processes, 24(2-3), 199-228.
Snow, C. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. RAND Corporation.
Tunçer, B. K., & Erden, G. (2015). Boşluk doldurma testlerinin ilkokul 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin okuduğunu anlama düzeylerini belirlemede kullanılabilirliği. Bartın Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 318-324.
Ulusoy, M. (2009). Boşluk tamamlama testinin okuma düzeyini ve okunabilirliği ölçmede kullanılması. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(1), 105-126.
Ulusoy, M., & Çetinkaya, Ç. (2012). Cümle doğrulama tekniğinin okuma ve dinlemenin ölçülmesinde kullanılması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 43(43), 460-471.
Ushiro, Y., Takaki, S., Kobayashi, M., Hasegawa, Y., Nahatame, S., Hamada, A., & Kimura, Y. (2013). Measures of macroproposition construction in EFL reading: Summary writing task vs. the Meaning Identification Technique. JLTA Journal, 16,185-204.
Yazıcı, E., & Kurudayıoğlu, M. (2017). 5. sınıf Türkçe ders kitaplarındaki dinleme metinlerinin öğrencilerin seviyesine uygunluğunun incelenmesi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(4), 967-984.
Yıldırım, K., Yıldız, M., Ateş, S., & Rasinski, T. (2010). İlköğretim beşinci sınıf Türk öğrencilerin metin türlerine göre okuduğunu ve dinlediğini anlama düzeyleri. Elementary Education Online, 9, 44-51.