Main Article Content
Three-dimensional Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are being increasingly used in many areas, and they are becoming more and more integrated with learning and teaching. MUVEs can be used in learning and teaching to facilitate student learning and collaboration. This study identified the effects of MUVEs on collaborative learning and social presence and investigated whether these effects varied by gender. The participants were sophomore students attending a programming language course. They used a MUVE for their group meetings as part of their collaborative work. They also held voice communication. A four-section questionnaire was administered to the students who attended the meetings, in which the researchers served as facilitators. Interviews were held with randomly selected students. In addition, the group project meetings were tape-recorded, and field notes were taken for each meeting. The results showed that the MUVE enabled the group members to exchange ideas in an authentic environment, and that the file-sharing platform used as a complement to the MUVE reinforced collaborative learning. As long as technical problems are prevented, effective collaborative learning can be achieved in these environments.
Blas, N. D., Bucciero, A., Mainetti, L., & Paolini, P. (2012). Multi-User virtual environments for learning: Experience and Technology Design. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 5(4), 349-365. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6243131
Bosch-Sijtsema, P.M., & Haapamaki, J. (2014). Perceived enablers of 3D virtual environments for virtual team learning and innovation. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 395-401. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214002465
Bruckman, A. (1996). Finding one’s own space in cyberspace. Technology Review, 99(1), 48–54.
Bruckman, A. (2000). Uneven achievement in a constructivist learning environment. Paper presented at the International Conference on Learning Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI.
Chellali, A., Milleville-Pennel, I., & Dumas, C. (2013). Influence of contextual objects on spatial interactions and viewpoints sharing in virtual environments. Virtual Reality, 17, 1-15.
Clarke, J., Dede, C., Ketelhut, D. J., & Nelson, B. (2006). A design-based research strategy to promote scalability for educational innovations. Educational Technology, 46 (3), 27-36. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6a8a/7e58f651bbe02d9363a3cb6c890e0261996f.pdf
Cobb, S., Neale, H., Crosier, J., & Wilson, J. R. (2002). Development and evalution of virtual learning environments. In K.M. Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Corbit, M. (2002). Building virtual worlds for informal science learning (SciCentr and SciFair) in the Active Worlds Educational Universe (AWEDU). Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environment, 11 (1), 55-67.
Davis, A., Murphy, J., Owens, D., Khazanchi, D., & Zigurs, I. (2009). Avatars, people, and virtual environments: Foundations for research in metaverses. Journal of the Association of Information Systems, 10(2), 90-117.
Denzin, N.K. (1970). The research act in sociology. Chicago: Aldine.
Denzin, N.K. (1978). Sociological Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dickey, M. D. (2000). 3D virtual worlds and learning: An analysis of the impact of design affordances and limitations in Active Worlds, blaxxun interactive, and OnliVe! Traveler: and a study of the implementation of Active Worlds for formal and informal education. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Dickey, M. D. (2003). Teaching in 3D: Pedagogical affordances and constraints of 3D virtual worlds for synchronous distance learning. Distance Education, 24(1), 105-121.
Doğan, D., Çınar, M., & Tüzün, H. (2018). Multi-user virtual environments for education. In: N. Lee (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games. Springer International Publishing. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_172-1. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~htuzun/html/academic/2018-Dogan-Cinar-Tuzun.pdf
Edirisingha, P., Nie, M., Pluciennik, M., & Young, R. (2009). Socialisation for learning at a distance in a 3-D multi-user virtual environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 458-479.
EDU-CAUSE (2007). The Horizon Report 2007 Edition, Austin, Tx: The New Media Consortium and Boulder, Co: Educause Learning Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2007_Horizon_Report.pdf
Gunawardena, C. N. & Zittle, F. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education, 11 (3), 8-26.
Hämäläinen, R., Manninen, T., Järvelä, S., & Häkkinen, P. (2006). Learning to collaborate: Designing collaboration in a 3-D game environment. Internet and Higher Education, 9, 47-61.
Ibanez, M.B., Rueda, J.J.G., Maroto, D., & Kloos, C.D. (2013). Collaborative learning in multi-user virtual environments. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 36, 1566-1576.
Leh, A.S. (2001). Computer-mediated communication and social presence in a distance learning environment. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 7(2), 109-128.
McCreery, M.P., Schrader, P.G., Krach, S.K., & Boone, R. (2013). A sense of self: The role of presence in virtual environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1635-1640.
Messinger, P.R., Stroulia, E., Lyons, K., Bone, M., Niu, R.H., Smirnov, K., & Perelgut, S. (2009). Virtual worlds – past, present and future: New directions in social computing. Decision Support Systems, 47, 204-228.
Nelson, B., Ketelhut, D. J., Clarke, J., Bowman, C., & Dede, C. (2005). Design-based research strategies for developing a scientific inquiry curriculum in a multi-user virtual environment. Educational Technology, 45(1), 21-34.
Patton, M.Q. (1999). Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis. HSR: Health Services Research, 34(5), 1189-1208.
Poole, D.M. (2000). Student participation in a discussion-oriented online course: a case study. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(2), 162-177.
Poppe, E., Brown, R., Recker, J., Johnson, D., & Vanderfeesten, I. (2017). Design and evaluation of virtual environments mechanisms to support remote collaboration on complex process diagrams. Information Systems, 66, 59-81.
Rice, R. E. (1992). Task analysability, use of new media, and effectiveness: amulti-site exploration of media richness. Organisation Science, 3, 475-500.
Rourke, L., Andersın, T., Garrison, D.R., & Archer, W. (2001). Methodological issues in the content analysis of computer conference transcripts. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 12, 8-22.
Sallnas, E.-L., (2005). Effects of communication mode on social presence, virtual presence, and performance in collaborative virtual environments. Presence, 14(3), 434-449.
Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating: the key to teaching and learning online (2nd ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.
Schultze, U., & Orlikowski, W.J. (2010). Research commentary—virtual worlds: a performative perspective on globally distributed, immersive work. Information Systems Research, 21, 810-821.
So, H. J. & Brush, T. A. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers and Education, 51, 318-336.
Swan, K. (2003). Developing social presence in online discussions. In S. Naidu (Ed.), Learning and teaching with technology: principles and practices (pp. 147-164). London: Kogan Page.
Tüzün, H., Alsancak-Sırakaya, D., Altıntaş-Tekin, A., & Yaşar-Eren, S. (2016). Üç-boyutlu çok-kullanıcılı sanal ortamlarda buradalığın incelenmesi (An investigation of presence in three-dimensional multi-user virtual environments). Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 31(3), 475-490. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~htuzun/html/academic/2016-Tuzun-AlsancakSirakaya-Presence.pdf
Zhao, S. (2003). Toward a taxonomoy of Copresence. Presence, 12(5), 445-455.