Effects of Early Morning Physical Activity on Elementary School Students’ Physical Fitness and Sociality : Focusing on the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

Main Article Content

Yongnam Park Jongho Moon



As part of the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program, we investigated how early morning physical activity affects elementary school students’ physical fitness and sociality. Seventy-five boys in 6th grade of S elementary school located in G Metropolitan City, Korea comprised the experimental group that participated in early morning physical activity for 6 months. The control group did not perform said activities. Experimental design for this study adopted pre- and post-measurement and comparison methods between groups. Collected data were analyzed with analyses of covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. The experimental group showed significant differences in the improvement of cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength among the sub-elements of physical fitness compared to controls. They also showed significant differences in the development of sociability, activity, autonomy, stability, and dominance among the sub-factors of sociality compared to controls. We elucidated the importance of early morning physical activity performed before school, which has implications for schools’ physical education programs. 


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
PARK, Yongnam; MOON, Jongho. Effects of Early Morning Physical Activity on Elementary School Students’ Physical Fitness and Sociality. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. 441-447, apr. 2018. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <https://iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/426>. Date accessed: 19 june 2019.


Baker, K.D., Beckstead, R.B., Mangelsdorf, D.J., & Thummel, C.S. (2007). Functional interactions between the moses corepressor and DHR78 nuclear receptor regulate growth in Drosophila. Genes and Development, 21(4), 450-464. doi: 10.1101/gad.1519007
Brusseau, T. A., & Honnon, J. C. (2015). Impacting children's health and academic performance through comprehensive school physical activity programming. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(3), 441-450. from: https://www.iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/90/88
Brusseau, T. A., Tudor-Locke, C., & Kulinna, P. H. (2013). Are children meeting any of the suggested daily step recommendations?. Biomedical human kinetics, 5, 11-16. doi:10.2478/bhk-2013-0003
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Comprehensive school physical activity programs: A guide for schools. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/professional_development/e-learning/cspap/_assets/FullCourseContent-CSPAP.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR, 60, 1–76. PMID: 21918496
Choi, C. S. (2001). The Relationships between participating in sport activities and sociability of elementary school students. (Master thesis, Korea national University of Education, Seoul, Korea)
Dinkel, D. M., Lee, J. M., & Schaffer, C. (2016). Examining the knowledge and capacity of elementary teachers to implement classroom physical activity breaks. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 9(1), 182-196. from: https://www.iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/151/148
Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Curtin, L. R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA, 303(3), 235-241, doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.2014
Guo, S. S., Wu, W, Chumlea, W. C., & Roche, A. F. (2002). Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 78(3):653-658. PMID: 12198014
Ha, C. D., Hong, H. R., Cho J. H., Cheun, J. Y., & Seo, Y. H. (2013). Effects of taebo exercise on physical fitness and academic performance in elementary school children. The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, 21(2),109-115.
Ha, J. Y. (2002). The influence of elementary school students' physical activities on the development of sociability. (Master thesis, Kyung-sung University, Busan, Korea).
Han, T. R. (1998). The relationship between sport participation and social development in youth. (Master these, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea).
Jang, Y. G. (2010). Justification of elementary physical education and the 2007 Revised Curriculum. The Journal of Korea elementary education, 21(2), 325-337.
Jung, B. M. (1971). A personality test manual: Senior grade in elementary school. Seoul: Korea Testing Center.
Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W. A, Shanklin, S. L., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., Queen. B., Lowry, R., Olsen, E. O., Chyen, D., Whittle, L., Thornton, J., Lim, C., Yamakawa, Y., Brener, N., & Zaza, S. (2016). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2015. MMWR, 65(6), 1–174. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6506a1.
Kim, M. H. (1996). The effects of role-playing teaching on leaner's social maturity. (Master thesis, Kon-kuk University, Seoul, Korea)
Kim, Y, K. (2007). The effect of morning music rope-skipping exercise on elementary school student's physical fitness. (Master thesis, Korea national Sport University, Seoul, Korea)
Kim, Y. Y. (2012). Influence of zero hour class physical activities on junior high school students physical fitness, physical self-efficacy, academic achievement and attitude toward learning. (Master thesis, Yongin University, Gyounggi-Do, Korea).
Kohl Ш, H. W., & Cook, H. D. (2013). Educating the student body: taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington D.C., National Academies Press(US).
Ko, W. H. (2016). Effect of early morning sport activity on enjoyment of physical activity and school life satisfaction of Elementary School Students. (Master thesis, Korea National University of Education, Chung-Buk, Korea).
Lee, D. H. & Kim, J. S. (2003). The teaching methods of character education through physical education. Journal of Korean Society for the Study of Physical Education, 7(4), 17-37.
Lee, G. I. & Kim, K. O. (2013). Educational achievements and Challenges of Sports Club System for Every Morning: Focused on the D Middle School., Secondary Institute of Education, 61(4), 1033-1060.
Mavrovouniotis, F. (2012). Inactivity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Modern Lifestyle Associated with Adverse Health Consequences. Sport Science Review, 21(3-4), 75-99. doi: 10.2478/v10237-012-0011-9
Michael, S.L., Merlo, C.L., Basch, C.E., Wentzel, K.R., & Wechsler, H. (2015). Critical connections: health and academics. Journal of School Health. 85(11):740–758. doi: 10.1111/josh.12309.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2008). Comprehensive school physical activity programs. Reston, VA: NASPE.
National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2016). 2016 US report card on physical activity for children and youth. Columbia, SC: NPAPA.
Oh, H, K. (2001). The relationship between participation in intramural physical activity programs and the development of children's sociability. (Master thesis, Seoul National University of Education, Seoul, Korea).
Ratey, J. J. (2008). Spark-The revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain. New York: Little Brown and Company.
Tannehill, D., van der Mars, H., & MacPhail, A. (2015). Building delivering and sustaining effective physical education programs. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
U.S. Department of health and human services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
World Health Organization (2015). World health statistics. Geneva: WHO.
Wright, C. M., Parker, L., Lamont, D. & Craft, A. W. (2001). Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand famillies cohort study, British Medical Journal, 323, 1280-8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7324.1280.