Main Article Content
Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and school
to school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needs
children in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptive
survey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools in
Oyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. The
instrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,
marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficient
alpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4
generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, while
that of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is
2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960). This implies that female teachers have
more positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their male
counterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists between
married and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And that
professionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards the
inclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It was
recommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve their
knowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for our
special needs children in Nigeria.
and challenges and policy implications. International Journal of Special Education,
Berryman, J., & Berryman, C. (1981). Use of the attitude toward mainstreaming scale
within rural geography teachers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles, CA (ERIC) No. ED 201
Bryant, D. P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching Students with Special Needs
in Inclusive Classrooms. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Centre for Universal Design (1997). University Design. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State
University. Federal Ministry of Education. Community Accountability and
Transparency Initiative. Available: http://www.fme.gov.ng/pages/cati.asp [accessed
12 December 2008].
Elliot, S. (2008). The effect of teachers’ attitude towards inclusion on the practice and
success levels of children with and without disabilities in physical education.
International Journal of Special Education, 23(3), 48-55.
Ferguson, D. L. (1996). Is it inclusion yet? Bursting the bubbles in M.S. Berres, D.L.
Ferguson, P. Knoblock, C. Woods (Eds.), Teachers College Press, New York, pp.16 -
Ferguson, R. V. (1997). Environment design and quality of life. In R. I. Brown (Ed.): Quality
of Life for People with Disabilities: Models, Research and Practice. Cheltenham.
U.K.: Stanley Thornes. 251-269.
Gardner, H. (1991). The Unschooled Mind. New York: Harper-Collins.
Gildner, C. (2001). Enjoy Teaching: Helpful Hints for the Classroom. Lanham, MD:
Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman (1998). Exceptional children introduction to special education.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon Press.
Harkness, S. P. & Groom Jr., J. N. (1976). Building Without Barriers for the Disabled. N.Y.,
N. Y.: The Architects Collaborative.
Houck, C. (1992) Special education integration, unification initiative for students with
specific learning disabilities. An investigation of programme status and impact
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 786).
Jamieson, J. (1981). Attitudes of educators toward the handicapped. In R. L. Jones (Ed).
Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice (pp. 206 –
222). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
Lipsky, D. K. & Gartner, A. (1997). Inclusion and school reform: Transforming America’s
classrooms. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.
Malinen, O. P., & Savolainen, H. (2008). Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students’ Attitude
towards Inclusion education. International Journal of Special Education, 23(30), 100-
Marston, R., & Leslie, D. (1983). Teacher perceptions from mainstreamed vs. nonmainstreamed
teaching environments. The Physical Educator, 40, 8-15.
Mba, P. O. (1991). Elements of Special Education. Ibadan: Codat Publication Nigeria.
Mitchell, D. R., & Brown R. I. (Eds.). (1991). Early Intervention Studies for Young Children
with Special Needs. London: Chapman and Hall.
Monaham, R., Miller, R. & Cronic, D. (1997). Rural Teachers’ Administrators’ and
Counsellors’’ Attitude towards inclusion. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO.
ED 406 099).
National Policy on Education (2008). Section 7: Special Needs Education. Abuja, Nigeria.
Ogbue, R. M. (1995). Report of the Survey of special Education Facilities in Nigeria. Lagos
Federal Government Press.
Patrick, G. (1987). Improving Attitudes toward Disabled Persons. Adapted Physical Activity
Quarterly, 4, 316-325.
Phillips, W., Allred, K., Brulle, A., & Shank, K. (1990). REI: The will and skill of regular
educators (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 320 323).
Rizzo, T. L. (1984). Attitudes of physical educators toward teaching handicapped pupils.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1(3), 267-274.
Rizzo, T. L. (1985). Attributes related to teachers’ attitudes. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
60, 739 742.
Rizzo, T. L. (1986). Physical educators’ attitude toward teaching the handicapped II.
Unpublished survey. Available from the author, Department of Kinesiology,
California State University, San Bernardino, CA. 92407-2397.
Rizzo, T. L. (1993). Physical educators’ attitude toward teaching individuals with
disabilities-III. Unpublished survey. Available from the author, Department
Kinesiology, California State University, San Bernardino, CA. 92407-2397.
Rizzo, T. L., & Vispoel, W. P. (1991). Physical educators’ attributes and attitudes toward
teaching students with handicaps. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 8(1), 4-11.
Rizzo, T. L., & Vispoel, W. P. (1992). Changing attitudes about teaching students with
handicaps. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 9(1), 54-63.
Rizzo, T. L., & Wright, R. G. (1987). Secondary school physical educators’ attitudes toward
teaching students with handicaps. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 41, 52-55.
Rizzo, T. L., & Wright, R. G. (1988). Selected attributes related to physical educators’
attitudes toward teaching students with handicaps. Mental Retardation, 26, 307-309.
Rogers, J. (1993). The inclusion revolution. Research Bulletin. No. 11. Bloomington, IN:
Delta Kappan, Centre for Evaluation, Development, and Research. May.
Salend, S. J. (2001) Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices for
All Students. Fifth Edition., New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Siegel, J. (1992). Regular Education Teachers’ Attitudes towards their Mainstreamed
Students (ERIC Reproduction Service No. Ed 354 653).
Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (1991). A Commentary on Inclusion and the Development of
a Positive Self-Identity by people with disabilities. Exceptional Child, 60, 486 – 490.
Smith, D. D. (2007). Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference. 6th edition.
Boston, MA: Pearson.
Steinfeld, E., Duncan, J., & Cardell, P. (1977). Towards a responsive environment: the
psychosocial effects of inaccessibility. In M. J. Bednar (Ed.), Barrier-Free
Environments. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.
Tripp, A. (1988). Comparison of attitudes of regular and adapted physical educators toward
disabled individuals. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 425-426.
Tripp, A., & Sherrill, C. (1991). Attitude theories of relevance to adapted physical
education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 8(1), 12-27.
UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs
Education. Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access
and Quality. Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June.
UNESCO (2008). Inclusive Education. Available:
=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html [accessed12 December 2008].
Waksler, R. (1996). Teaching strategies for a barrier free classroom. Journal on Excellence
in College Teaching, 7(2). 99-111.
Wikzenshi, F. (1994). Use of the “Attitude toward Mainstreaming Scale with
Undergraduate Education Students”. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
New England Educational Research Organisation, Portsmouth, NH (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. 332 992).