Main Article Content
The objective of this study was to examine how and to what extent Grades 7 and 8 teachers
have implemented educational reforms in China that have had a direct impact on students,
teachers, and parents. Major sources of data for this study were separate anonymous surveys
for teachers, students, and parents. The study concluded that teachers and parents liked the
reform initiatives. Most teachers were able to make changes that supported the reforms that
include curriculum planning, teaching strategies, student evaluation, and special education.
Teachers lacked in-service professional development and resources, especially in the rural
areas. Teachers experienced difficulties that arose from the conflict between activity-based
learning and exam-oriented systems. Parents and society need to change their mindsets of
valuing exam achievements. Chinese educators are at the crossroads of whether the ‘quality’
movement is what the students and society need at this time or make changes in the high
stakes examination. Leaders who want to implement change will have to pay attention to the
voices of stakeholders.
Clarke, D.M. (1997). The changing role of mathematics teacher. Journal for Research in
Mathematics Education, 28(3), 278-308.
Doyle, W., & Ponder, A. (1976/77). The practicality ethics in teacher decision-making.
Interchange, 8(3), 1-12.
Earl, L. & Sutherland, S. (2003). Student engagement in times of turbulent change. McGill
Journal of Education, 38(2), 329-343.
Earl, L., Freeman, S., Lasky, S., Sutherland, S., & Torrance, N. (2002). Policy, Politics,
Pedagogy and People: Early Perceptions and Challenges of Large-scale Reform in
Ontario Secondary Schools. Toronto: International Centre for Educational Change,
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. Education
Reform in China: An Interview with Aibe Chen. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 38(2), 93-96,
Fullan, M. (1996). Turning systemic thinking on its head. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(6), 420–
Fullan, M. (2000). The return of large-scale reform. Journal of Educational Change, 1(1), 5-
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change (3rd ed.). New York: Teachers
Fullan, M., & Stiegelbauer, S. (1991). The new meaning of educational change (2nd ed.).
New York: Teachers College Press.
Huang, X. (2004). Mathematical Experiments: A Survey of Differences between Girls and
Boys in Middle School in China. Paper presented at the 10th International Congress
on Mathematical Education, Copenhagen.
Levin, B. (2000). Putting students at the centre in educational reform. Journal of
Educational Change, 1, 155-172.
Liu, P., & Qi, C. (2005). Reform in the curriculum of basic education in the Peoples’
Republic of China: Pedagogy, application, and learners. International Journal of
Educational Reform, 14(1), 35-44.
Ma, Y-P, Lam, C-C, & Wong, N-Y. (2006).Chinese primary school mathematics teachers
working in a centralized curriculum system: a case study of two primary schools in
North-East China. Compare, 36(2), 197-212.
,Ryan, T., & Joong, P. (2005). Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the nature and impact
of large-scale reforms. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy,
Issue #38. Available online: http://umanitoba.ca/publications/cjeap/articles/ryan_-
Tao, X. (2003). Lessons to Learn on Education Reform. China Daily, June 16, 2003.
Available online: http://www.china.org.cn/english/culture/67092.htm.
Whitty, G., Power, S., & Halpin, D. (1998). Devolution and choice in education: The school,
the state, the market. Camberwell, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian
Council for Educational Research, & Buckingham, England: Open University Press.
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2006). Understanding by design. Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development. (2nd ed.). Alexandria, Virginia.
Zhang, X. (2004). “Trend of Mathematical Education Reform in China.” Paper presented at
the 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education, Copenhagen, July, 2004.
Zhong, Q.Q., & Cui, Y.H. (2003). The innovativeness and ideology of the new curriculum: a
text for student teachers. Beijing: Higher Education Publisher.