Literacy among malaysian primary schoolers: How do boys perform relative to girls?

Main Article Content

Ratnawati Mohd-Asraf Hazlina Abdullah Ainul Azmin Mat Zamin

Abstract

The performance of boys in literacy has become an issue of increasing concern around the globe. This paper discusses the results of a study that sought to determine the literacy performance of Malaysian primary schoolers. Using one of the states in the country as a case study, data on approximately 85 000 students from grades 1, 2, and 3 were obtained. Teachers’ views were also sought through focus group interviews and journal entries. The results show that although there is an overall improvement in literacy performance in the national language among the students as they go into Grades 2 and 3, girls are found to outperform boys in every screening for all grade levels

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
MOHD-ASRAF, Ratnawati; ABDULLAH, Hazlina; MAT ZAMIN, Ainul Azmin. Literacy among malaysian primary schoolers: How do boys perform relative to girls?. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 1, p. 225-238, aug. 2017. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <https://iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/154>. Date accessed: 18 apr. 2019.
Section
Articles

References

Alloway, N., Freebody, P., Gilbert, P., & Muspratt, S. (2002). Boys , Literacy and Schooling: Expanding the repertoires of practice. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Education Science & Training. Retrieved from http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/637/1/BoysLiteracySchooling.pdf
Arnot, M., & Phipps, A. (2003). Gender and education in the United Kingdom (pp. 1–23). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001467/146735e.pdf. Accessed 5 September 2013.
Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2013). National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy: Achievement in reading, persuasive writing, language conventions and numeracy. http://www.nap.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAPLAN_2013_National_Report.PDF. Accessed 10 October 2014.
Australian Department of Education, Science,and Training. (2003). Educating boys: Issues and information. A Commonwealth Government Initiative.
Bonomo, V. (2010). Gender matters in elementary education: Research-based strategies to meet the distinctive learning need of boys and girls. Educational Horizons, 88(4), 257–264.
Brochu, P., Deussing, M.-A., Houme, K., & Chuy, M. (2012). Measuring up: Canadian results of the OECD PISA study. Toronto. http://cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/318/PISA2012_CanadianReport_EN_Web.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2014.
Carr, J., & Pauwels, A. (2006). Boys and foreign language learning. Real boys don’t do languages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230501652
Chall, J. S., & Jacobs, V. A. (2003). Poor children’s fourth-grade slump. American Educator. http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/spring2003/chall.html. Accessed 17 July 2014.
Chang, N. (2011a). Ensuring literacy with LINUS. The Star Online. http://www.thestar.com.my/Story.aspx/?file=%2f2011%2f9%2f19%2fnation%2f9500625&sec=nation. Accessed 15 September 2013.
Chang, N. (2011b). LINUS moving on the right track. The Star Online. http://www.thestar.com.my/Story.aspx?file=%2f2011%2f9%2f12%2fnation%2f9444223&sec=nation. Accessed 15 September 2013.
Chew, F. P. (2012). Literacy among the secondary schools students in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 2(6), 546–550. doi:10.7763/IJSSH.2012.V2.168
Clark, C., & Burke, D. (2012). Boys’ Reading Commission 2012: A review of existing research conducted to underpin the commission.
Clark, C., & Douglas, J. (2011). Young people' s reading and writing: An in-depth study focusing on enjoyment , behaviour , attitudes and attainment. London: National Literacy trust.
Connolly, P. (2004). Boys and schooling in the early years. London: Routledge Falmer.
Cresswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (Third Edition). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Cuttance, P., & Thompson, J. (2008). Literature review of boys education. http://www.victoria.ac.nz/education/pdf/whakapiki/boys_ed_lit_rev_nz.pdf. Accessed 9 September 2013.
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2014). GDP by State. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/images/stories/files/LatestReleases/gdp negeri/GDP_State2005-2013BI.pdf. Accessed 13 September 2014.
Educational Planning and Research Division. (2012). Quick Facts 2012 Malaysia educational statistics. Putrajaya. http://emisportal.moe.gov.my/emis/emis2/emisportal2/doc/fckeditor/File/Quickfacts_2012/quickfacts2012.pdf. Accessed 6 September 2013.
European Commission. (2009). Gender differences in Eeducational outcomes: Study on the measures taken and the current situation in Europe. Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA P9 Eurydice). http://www.eurydice.org. Accessed 12 October 2013.
Examinations Syndicate, Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2012). Laporan Tahunan Lembaga Peperiksaan 2012 (pp. 1–153). http://www.moe.gov.my/lp/files/penerbitan/Buku Laporan Tahunan LP 2012.pdf. Accessed 13 September 2014.
Ferreiro, E., & Teberosky, A. (2009). Literacy before schooling. New York: Heinemann.
Gilbert, P. (1998). Gender and schooling in new times: The challenge of boys and literacy. The Australian Educational Researcher, 25(1), 15–36.
Gilbert, R., & Gilbert, P. (1998). Masculinity crises & the education of boys. Change: Transformation in Education, 1(2), 31–40.
Gill, Z. (2005). Boys : Getting it right : The “ New ” Disadvantaged or “ Disadvantage ” Redefined ? The Australian Educational Researcher, 32(2), 105–124. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743500.pdf
Grossen, B. (1997). 30 Years of Research: What we know about how children learn to read. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED415492.pdf. Accessed 27 October 2014.
Gurian, M. (2011). Boys and girls learn differently. A guide for teachers and parents (10th Anniv., p. 401). San Francisco: Jossey-Boss A Wiley Imprint.
Gurian, M., & Stevens, K. (2004). With boys and girls in mind. Educational Leadership, 62(3), 21–26.
Jarvis, J. (1992). Using diaries for teacher reflection on in-service courses. ELT Journal, 46(April), 133–143. http://203.72.145.166/ELT/files/46-2-1.pdf. Accessed 9 July 2014.
Jones, J. (2003). Early literacy Aassessment systems: Essential elements. Princeton, NJ. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICEARLYLIT.pdf. Accessed 17 August 2014.
King, K., & Gurian, M. (2006). Teaching to the minds of boys. Teaching to student strengths, 64(1), 56–61. http://www.ncschoolcounselor.org/Resources/Documents/Article - Teaching to the Minds of Boys.pdf. Accessed 10 December 2013.
Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2009). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (4th edition). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Lindsay, G., & Muijs, D. (2005). Challenging underachievement of boys in Years 8 and 10 : A study for the Oldham Leading Edge Partnership. Retrieved from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/cedar/projects/completed05/oldhamboys/oldhamboys.pdf
Martin, A. J. (2002). Improving educational outcomes of boys: Final Report. Canberra.
Martin, A. J. (2003). Boys and motivation. The Australian Educational Researcher, 30(3), 43–65.
Martin, M. O., Mullis, I. V. S., Foy, P., Olson, J. F., Erberber, E., Preuschoff, C., & Galia, J. (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Science Report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades. Chestnut Hill, MA. http://timss.bc.edu/timss2007/sciencereport.html. Accessed 19 October 2013.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013a). Instrumen saringan literasi membaca saringan 1 tahun 1. http://nkra.moe.gov.my/. Accessed 9 June 2014.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013b). Instrumen saringan literasi membaca saringan 1 tahun 2. http://nkra.moe.gov.my/. Accessed 9 June 2014.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013c). LINUS 2.0 (Literasi Bahasa Inggeris) Manual am pentadbiran instrumen literasi 2013 (Saringan 2). http://nkra.moe.gov.my/. Accessed 9 June 2014.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013d). Manual am pentadbiran instrumen literasi 2013 (Saringan 1 Tahun 1) (Vol. 2013, pp. 1–5). http://nkra.moe.gov.my/. Accessed 9 June 2014.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013e). Taklimat literasi Bahasa Inggeris ( LBI ). http://nkra.moe.gov.my/. Accessed 9 June 2014.
Moon, J. (2003). Learning journals and logs , Reflective Diaries. https://www.deakin.edu.au/itl/assets/resources/pd/tl-modules/teaching-approach/group-assignments/learning-journals.pdf. Accessed 20 September 2014.
Morgan, D. L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Munns, G., Arthur, L., Downes, T., Gregson, R., Power, A., Sawyer, W., Steele, F. (2006). Motivation and engagement of boys: Evidence-based teaching practices. http://www.ecta.org.au/_dbase_upl/Motivation Engagement Boys.pdf. Accessed 14 August 2014.
National Literacy Trust. (2012). Boys’ reading commission. http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0001/4056/Boys_Commission_Report.pdf. Accessed 20 September 2013.
Nazariyah Sani, & Abdul Rahman Idris. (2012). Implementation of LINUS programme based on the model Of Van Meter and Van Horn. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science, 1(2), 25–36.
OECD. (2009). Equally prepared for Life? How 15-year-old boys and girls perform in school. http://www.kphvie.ac.at/fileadmin/Dateien_KPH/Forschung/PDFs_DOCs/Links/OECD_Equally_2009.pdf. Accessed 10 August 2013.
OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 at a glance. OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/9789264095298-en
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Dickinson, W. B., Leech, N. L., & Zoran, A. G. (2009). A qualitative framework for collecting and analysing data in focus group research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(3), 1–21.
Ortlipp, M. (2008). Keeping and using reflective journals in the qualitative research process. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 695–705.
Preliminary Report - Executive summary Malaysia education blueprint 2013-2025. (2012). http://www.moe.gov.my/userfiles/file/PPP/Preliminary-Blueprint-Eng.pdf. Accessed 1 July 2013.
Raina Ng. (2011). Closing the gender gap. The Edge, Management page. http://www.theedgemalaysia.com/management/195658-closing-the-gender-gap.html. Accessed 4 November 2013.
Rathvon, N. (2004). Early reading assessment: A practitioner’s handbook. New York: The Guildford Press.
Rohaty Mohd Majzub, & Maisarah Muhammad Rais. (2010a). Boys ’ underachievement : male versus female teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(C), 685–690. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.10.093
Rohaty Mohd Majzub, & Maisarah Muhammad Rais. (2010b). Boys’ underachievement: causes and strategies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3160–3164. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.482
Slade, M., & Trent, F. (2000). What the boys are saying: An examination of the views of boys about declining rates of achievement and retention. International Education Journal, 1(3), 201–229.
Slavin, R. E., & Madden, N. A. (1989). Effective classroom programs for students at risk. In R. E. Slavin, N. L. Karweit, & N. A. Madden (Eds.), Effective Programs for Students at Risk. Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.
Snow, C. E., & Biancarosa, G. (2003). Adolescent literacy and the achievement gap : What do we know and where do we go from here ? https://umdrive.memphis.edu/mransdll/public/Dr. Ransdell’s old courses/RDNG 7544/Chapter 2 Adolescent Literacy and the Achievement Gap.pdf. Accessed 13 October 2013.
The Scottish Government. (2013). Scottish Survey of Literacy and Numeracy 2012 (Literacy) (Vol. 2012, pp. 1–26). http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00420483.pdf. Accessed 10 September 2014.
The Scottish Government. (2014). Scottish Survey of Literacy and Numeracy 2013 (Numeracy) (Vol. 2013, pp. 1–35). http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0044/00449212.pdf. Accessed 10 September 2014.
TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. (2011). PIRLS 2011 International Results in Reading: Executive Summary (Vol. 91, pp. S32–S38). doi:10.1097/01.tp.0000399132.51747.71
UNESCO. (2009). Promoting Gender Equality in Education. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001864/186495E.pdf
UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2009). The Next Generation of Literacy Statistics: Implementing the Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). Montreal, Quebec. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/Tech1-eng.pdf. Accessed 13 September 2014.
Voyer, D., & Voyer, S. D. (2014). Gender differences in scholastic Achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1174–204. doi:10.1037/a0036620
Warrington, M., & Younger, M. (2006). Raising boys’ achievement in primary schools towards an holistic approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Younger, M., Warrington, M., Gray, J., Rudduck, J., McLellan, R., Bearne, E., Bricheno, P. (2005). Raising boys’ achievement. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR636.pdf
Zalizan Mohd Jelas, Saemah Rahman, Roselan Baki, & Jamil Ahmad. (2005). Prestasi Akademik Mengikut Gender. Jurnal Pendidikan, 30, 93–111.