# Teacher variables as predictors of academic achievement of primary school pupils mathematics

## Main Article Content

## Abstract

This study examined the relationship between Teacher self- efficacy, interest, attitude, qualification,

experience and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics. The participants of the

study comprises of 254 primary school teachers and 120 primary school pupils. Data collected on the

study were analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results reveals that teacher self –

efficacy and interest had significant correlation with pupils achievement scores. Teacher’s self-efficacy

being the best predictor of pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics was followed by teacher’s

interest. Attitude, qualification and experience were not significant correlation with pupil’s achievement

in mathematics. The study recommended that it is high time for primary school mathematics teachers to

have a change of attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of universal basic

education will not be hindered. Furthermore, primary school educational authorities were called upon to

ensure that only teachers who are qualified to teach the subject are employed. Not these alone, their

attention was also drawn to the fact that they should design educational programmes that will enhance

the teacher self- efficacy for a better prediction of pupils’ achievement in mathematics.

### Downloads

## Article Details

**International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education**, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 1, p. 16-33, july 2017. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <https://iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/4>. Date accessed: 06 aug. 2020.

## References

Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers. Science Education 81(1), 29 –

50.

Agyenmang, D.K. (1993). Sociology of Education for African Students.Temo: Ghana

Publishing Corporation.

Akpan, A.A (1987).Correlates of Mathematical Problem-Solving Ability among

Secondary School Students. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis University of Ibadan,

Ibadan.

Ale, S.O (1989). School Mathematics in the 1990’s some Major Problems for

Developing Countries: International Journal of Mathematics Educational in

Science and Technology 20 (5), 655-659.

Alele- William G. (1988). Keynote Address Delivered at the Silver Jubilee meeting of

mathematics Association of Nigeria (MAN) Sept. 1982. Abacus 18 (1), 15-19.

Aminu, J. (1990). Address by the Honourable Minister of Education. Abacus 20 (1), 22-

29.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward Unifying Theory of Behavioural Change.

Psychological Review 84, 191 – 215.

Bobbitt, S.A., and McMillen, M.M. (1994). Qualifications of the Public School

Teacher Workforce: 1988 and 1991(NCES 95-665). U.S. Department of

Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

Brookover W, Beady C, Flood P, Schweitzer J & Wisenbaker J (1979) School social

systems and student achievement: schools can make a difference. New York:

Bergin.

Caraway, S. D. (1985). Factors influencing competency in mathematics among

entering elementary Education majors. Unpublished manuscript,

Universityof SouthAlabama. (ERIC Reproduction Service Document No.

ED260941).

Carpenter, T., & Lubinski, C. (1990).Teachers’ attributions and beliefs about girls, boys

and mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics 21, 55-69.

Davies, N., & Savell, J. (2000). "Maths is like a bag of tomatoes": Student

attitudes upon entry to an Early Years teaching degree. Paper presented at the

Teacher Education Forum of Aotearoa New Zealand Conference, Christchurch.

Edwards A, and Knight P. (1974). Effective Early Years Education. Teaching Young

Children. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Fajemidagba, O. (1999). Trends in Mathematics Education in Nigeria: Issues and

Problems Abacus 2 (1),, 19-27.

Ferguson, R.F. (1991). Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why

money matters. Harvard Journal of Legislation 28, 465-498.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An

introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Goldhaber, D. D., and Anthony, E. (2004). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed?

The Urban Institute. Retrieved December12, 2006, from

http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=410958

Goldhaber, D. D., and Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High

school teacher certification status and student achievement. Education

Evaluation and Policy Analysis 22, 129-45.

Georgewill, J.W. (1980).Causes of poor achievement on WAEC Mathematical

Examination in River State. Secondary School Nigeria. International

Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 21 (3), 379-385.

Gibson and Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher Efficacy: Construct Validation. Journal of

Educational Psychology 76, 569 – 582.

Glathhorn Fox ; Slick ; Breliner & Biddle; Colton & Spark- Lager ; Costa ; Lampert

& Clark; Pultorak ; Porter & Brophy; Dwyer & Villegas in Stroot, S; Keil V;

Stedman , P; Lohr, L ; Faust, R; Schinn Cariol –Randall, L; Sullivan, A:

Czerniak, G; Kuchcinski, J; Orel N; & Richter, M; (1998). Peer Assistant and

Review Guidebook. Columbus; OH: Ohio Department of Education.

Greenwald, R., Hedges, L.V., & Laine, R.D (1996).The effect of school resources on

student achievement. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), 361- 396.

Grootenboer, P. J. (2002). Affective development in mathematics: A case of two

pre- service primary school teachers. In B. Barton, K. Irwin, M.

Prankish, & M. Thomas (Eds.). Mathematics education in the South Pacific:

Proceedings of the Twenty- Fifth Annual Conference of the Mathematics

Education Research Group of Australasia (pp. 318-325). Sydney:

MERGA.

Hanushek, E. (1990).The impact of differential expenditure on school performance.

Educational Research 14, (4), 20- 25.

Hawkins, E.F., Stancavage, F.B., & Dossey, J.A. (1998). School policies and practices

affecting instruction in mathematics. (NCES 98495). Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Hawk, P. P., Coble, C. R., & Swanson, M. (1985). Certification: It does matter. Journal

of Teacher Education 36 (3), 13-15.

Hone; Mechling, Stedmen; & Donnelley; Cunningham & Blacenship; Schoenberger,

Gusky, Smylie, Mitgelly et al and Gusky and Passaro in George Wenner.

(2001); Science and Mathematics Efficacy Beliefs Held by Practicing and

Prospective Teachers; A 5 – years Perspective. Journal of Science

Education and Technology 10 (2), 181-187. .

Ingersoll, R. (1996). Out-of-Field Teaching and Educational Equality (NCES 96–

040). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education

Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ingersoll, R. (1999). The Problem of Underqualified Teachers in American Secondary

Schools. Educational Researcher, 28(2): 26–37.

Ingersoll, R. (2000). Rejoinder: Misunderstanding the Problem of Out-of-Field

Teaching. Educational Researcher 30 (1), 21–22.

Kennedy (1990) & Raudenbush, Rowan & cheong (1992): Retrieved October 10,

2006, from http://deo,murdoch.edu.au/gem/iier/iiers/welch.htm

Kerlinger, F.N. (1985). Foundation of Behavioural Research. Rinehart Holt and

Winston.

Mayer, D.P., Mullens, J.E., and Moore, M.T. (2000). Monitoring School Quality:

An Indicators Report (NCES 2001-030). U.S. Department of Education,

National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

McDonald T & Siegall M (1992).The effects of technological self-efficacy and job

focus on job performance, attitudes, and withdrawal behaviors. Journal of

Psychology,126, 465–475.

McMillen, M; Seastrom, K.J; Gruber, R.H.; McGrath, D.J.; &. Cohen, B.A.

(2000).Qualification of the public school teacher workforce: Prevalence of outof-

field teaching 1987-88-1999-2000. Education Statistics Quarterly. Retrieved

December 29, 2006 from

http://www.nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol4/4_3/2_2asp

Mitchell, M. (1993).Situational interest: Its multifaceted structure in the secondary

school mathematics classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology 88, 3,

408- 422.

Midgely C, Feldlaufer H & Eccles JS (1989) Change in teacher efficacy and student

self-and task-related beliefs in mathematics during the transition to junior high

school. Journal of Educational Psychology l 81 ( 2), pp 247–258.

Monk, D. (1994). Subject area preparation of secondary mathematics and science

teachers and student achievement. Economics of Education

Review,13(2);125-145.

National Commission on Teaching & America's Future. (1996). What Matters Most:

Teaching for America's Future. Report of the National Commission on Teaching

& America's Future. Summary Report. New York: Author.

Neuschatz, M., and McFarling, M. (1999). Maintaining Momentum: High School

Physics for a New Millennium. College Park, MD: American Institute of

Physics. Retrieved December 29, 2006, from http//: www.aip.org/statistics

Robinson, V. (1985). Making Do in the Classroom: A Report on the Misassignment of

Teachers. Washington, DC: The Council for Basic Education.

Nisbet, S. (1991). A new instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers’

attitudes to teaching mathematics. Mathematics Education Research

Journal, 3, 34-56.

Odogwu, H.N (1994) Primary school Teachers and the Teaching of Time

Concept in Schools” Education Today 7, (21), 24-30.

Ohuche, R.O (1978). Recent attempts at Mathematics Curriculum Renewal in English

Speaking West Africa” Abacus 12, (1), 17-26.

Oshibodu, B.M (1984). An Investigation of Teacher’s Instrumental problems in

Mathematics. Benin Journal of Educational Studies. 11(3), 43-54.

Oshibodu, B.M. (1988). Mathematics at Primary level’. Abacus 18, (1) 13 – 20.

Rech, J., Hartzell, J, & Stephens, L. (1993). Comparisons of mathematical

competencies and attitudes of elementary education majors with established

norms of a general college population. School Science and Mathematics,93(3),

141-44.

Relich, J., Way, J., & Martin, A. (1994) Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further

development of a measurement instrument. Mathematics EducationResearch

Journal, 6 (1), 56-69.

Riggs, I. and Knochs, L. (1990).Towards the Development of an Elementary

Efficacy Belief Instrument. Science Education, 74, 625 – 637. Retrieved

December 29, 2006, from http://deo,murdoch.edu.au/gem/iier/iiers/welch.htm

Sanders, W. L. and J. C. Rivers (1996).Cumulative and residual effects of

teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University

of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.

Skott, J. (2001). Emerging Practices of a Novice Teacher. Journal of Mathematics

Teacher Education, 4, (1), 3-28.

Southwell, B., & White, A.L.(2005).Attitude versus achievement in pre-service

Mathematics teacherEducation.Retrieved December 29, 2006, from:

http://www.aare.edu.au/05papsou05705.pdf

Sullivan, P. (1989). The impact of a pre-service mathematics education on

beginning primary teachers. Research in Mathematics Education in Australia,

August, 1-9.

Swarzer, R., Schmitz, G.S. &. Daytner, G.T. (1999).The teacher self-efficacy scale.

Retrieved December 29, 2006, from http://www.fuberlin.

de/gessund/skalen/t_se.htm

Tella, A.(1998). An Investigation into Poor Performance and Attitude of Secondary

School Students towards Mathematics in Oyo State, Nigeria. Unpublished B.Ed.

Project University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Trentham L, Silvern S & Brogdon R (1985) Teacher efficacy and teacher

competency ratings. Psychology in the Schools, 22, (3), 343–349.

Wenglinsky, H. (2000). Teaching the teachers: Different settings, different results.

Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Wright, S. P., S. P. Horn, et al. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on

student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel

Evaluation in Education:11, 57-67