Emotional intelligence among auditory, reading, and kinesthetic learning styles of elementary school students in Ambon-Indonesia

Main Article Content

Marleny Leasa Aloysius D. Corebima Hadi Suwono Ibrohim Ibrohim


Students have unique ways in managing the information in their learning process. VARK learning styles associated with memory are considered to have an effect on emotional intelligence. This quasi-experimental research was conducted to compare the emotional intelligence among the students having auditory, reading, and kinesthetic learning styles in elementary school in Ambon-Maluku. Emotional intelligence was measured by a questionnaire developed based on the theory of emotional intelligence according to Goleman (1998). The learning style instrument was adapted from Fleming (2001). The results of this research show that learning styles have significant effect on emotional intelligence. Kinesthetic learners have a higher emotional intelligence than those of the auditory and reading learners, as much as 8.35% and 6.11% respectively. This research recommends that schools and teachers need to provide a conducive learning environment, including utilizing constructivist learning strategies which are appropriate with the development of the elementary school students. Further researches are required to investigate the changes of the students’ learning styles along with their development into higher education levels, and its effect on their emotional intelligence.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
LEASA, Marleny et al. Emotional intelligence among auditory, reading, and kinesthetic learning styles of elementary school students in Ambon-Indonesia. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 83-91, oct. 2017. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <https://iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/301>. Date accessed: 27 may 2019.


Aliakbari, M., & Nejadian, A. R. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence and learning styles: the case of Iranian english for academic purposes learners. Educational Psychology, 35(7), 1-17.
Ashdown, D. M., & Bernard, M. E. (2012). Can explicit in social and emotional learning skills benefit the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of young children? Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(6), 397-405
Ashiabi, G. S. (2000). Promoting the emotional development of preschoolers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 28(2), 79-84.
Baş, G., & Beyhan, Ö. 2010. Effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning on students’ achievement levels and attitudes towards English lesson, International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2(3): 365-385.
Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402.
Berrocal, P. F., & Ruiz, D. (2008). Emotional intellegence in education. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 6(15), 421-436.
Boone, R. T., & Cunningham, J. G. (1998). Children’s decoding of emotion in expressive body movement: the development of cue attunement. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 1007-1016.
Caldarella, P. C. L., Kramer, J. T., & Kronmiller, K. (2009). Promoting social and emotional learning in second grade students: a study of the strong start curriculum. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37, 51-56.
Cavanaugh, L. A., MacInnis, D. J., & Weiss, A. M. (2015). Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions. Cognition and Emotion: 1-16. doi. 10.1080/02699931.2015.1070119.
Daşdemir, I. 2016. The effect of the 5E instructional model enriched with cooperative learning and animations on seventh-grade students’ academic achievement and scientific attitudes. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 9(1): 21-38.
Davis, S. A. (2007). Learning styles and memory. http://www.auburn.edu/.../ilsrj/.../Learning Styles and Memory.pdf. Accessed on 27 September 2013.
Demir, S., Kilinc, M., & Dogan, A. 2012. The effect of curriculum for developing efficient studying skills on academic achievements and studying skills of learners. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(3): 427-440.
Dyck, E. V., Maes, P. Jan., Hargreaves, J., Lesaffre, M., & Leman, M. (2013). Expressing induced emotions through free dance movement. Journal Nonverbal Behavior, 37, 175-190.
Downey, L. A., Lomas, J., Billings, C., Hansen, K., & Stough, C. (2014). Scholastic success: fluid intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 29(1), 40-53.
Eom, S. B., Wen, H. J., & Ashill, N. (2006). The determinants of students’ perceived learning outcomes and satisfaction in university online education: an empirical investigation. Decision Journal of Innovative Education, 4(2), 215-233.
Erwin, H., Fedewa, A., & Ahn, S. 2013. Student academic performance outcomes of a classroom physical activity intervention: A pilot study. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 5(2): 109-124.
Fernandez, J. M. G., Ingles, C. J., Suria, R., Martin, N. L. S., Macia, C. G., Aparizi, D., & Monteagudo, M. C. M. (2015). Profiles of emotional intelligence and learning strategy in a sample of Chilean students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30, 437-455.
Fleming, N. D. (2001). Teaching and learning styles: VARK strategies. Christchurch, New Zealand.
Fong, O. P., & Yeo, R. (2007). Influence of emotional intelligence on learning styles: an exploratory study on management undergraduates in Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. Enhancing Higher Education, Theory and Scholarship, Proceedings of the 30th HERDSA Annual Conference, Adelaide, 8-11 July 2007. (Online), (www.herdsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/conference/2007/, accessed on 21 January 2015).
Furtner, M. R., Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2010). The sosioemotionally intelligent self-leader: examining relations between self leadership and sosioemotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(9), 1191-1196.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: the theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
Ghuman, U. (2011). Building a model of group emotional intelligence. Team Performance Management, 17(7/8), 418-439.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligences. New York: Bantam Books.
Gunter, L., Caldarella, P., Korth, B. B., & Young, K. R. (2012) Promoting social and emotional learning in preschool students: a study of strong start pre-K. Early Childhood Educ Journal, 40, 151-159.
Hanford, K. (2000). Wisdom in movement. California: Nord Press.
Hegarty, N., & Angelidis, J. (2015). The impact of academic service learning as a teaching method and its effect on emotional intelligence. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13, 363-374.
Hertenstein, M. J., & Keltner, D. (2011). Gender and the communication of emotion via touch. Sex Roles, 64, 70-80.
Iaosanurak, C., Chanchalor, S., & Murphy, E. (2015). Social and emotional learning around technology in a cross-cultural, elementary classroom. Educ Inf Technol, 1-24.
Johnson, J. M., & Stern, T. A. (2014). Teaching residents about emotional intelligence and its impact on leadership. Academic Psychiatry, 1-4.
Kwon, J. Y., & Yakwey, T. D. (2003). Principles of emotional development and children’s pretend play. International Journal of Early Childhood, 32(1), 9-13.
Leasa, M. (2014). Learning style preferences of elementary school students class VI in Ambon. Research Report Beginner Lecturer. Ambon: FKIP-Pattimura University.
Leasa, M., & Samallo, R. (2014). Learning motivation of students in Ambon child-friendly school, Moluccas. Education, 4(2), 41-51.
Leiner, H. C. (2010). Solving the mystery of the human cerebellum. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 229-235.
Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2004). Emotion and memory research. Social Cognition, 22(5), 530-554.
Lisle, A. M. (2007). Assessing learning styles of adults with intellectual difficulties. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 2(1), 23-45.
Mayer, J. D., & Cobb, C. D. (2000). Educational policy on emotional intelligence: does it make sense? Educational Psychology Review, 12(2), 163-183.
McCleskey, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and leadership. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), 76-93.
Nelis, D., Quidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: how is it possible? Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 36-41.
Othman, N., & Amiruddin, M. H. (2010). Different perspective of learning styles from VARK model. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(C), 652-660.
Peyman, H., Sadeghifar, J., Khajavikhan, J., Yasemi, M., Rasool, M., Yaghoub, Y. M., Nahal, M. H. M., & Karim, H. (2014). Using VARK approach for assessing preferred learning styles of first year medical sciences students: a survey from Iran. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(8), GC01-GC04.
Rudman, E., Beer, M. D., Olorundju, S. (2015). Learning styles of first year occupational therapy students studying at a university in South Africa. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(3), 23-27.
Saadi, I. A., & Abdulaziz, K. (2014). Gender and learning styles in Saudi Arabia schools. The Clute Institute International Academic Conference. San Antonio, Texas USA.
Shahzada, G., Ghazi, S., Khan, A., Khan, H., & Shah, M. (2011). The relationship of emotional intelligence with the students’ academic achievement. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(1), 994-1001.
Singh, J. (2014). Effect of school and home factors on learning outcomes at elementary school level: a hierarchical linear model. Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 1-26.
Singh, L., Govil, P., & Rani, R. (2015). Learning style preferences among secondary school students. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 6(5), 3924-3928.
Slater, J. A., Lujan H. L., & DiCarlo S. E. (2007). Does gender influence learning style preference of first year medical student?. Advances in Physiology Education, 31, 336-342.
Thom, L. (2010). From simple line to expressive movement: the use of creative movement to enhance socio-emotional development in the preschool curriculum. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 32, 100-112.
Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2007). Regulation of positive emotions: emotion regulation strategies that promote resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 311-333.
Vandervoort, D. (2006). The importance of emotional intelligence in higher education. Current Psychology, 25(1), 4-7.
Walter, O., & Hen, M. (2012). Sherborne developmental movement (SDM) teaching model for pre service teachers. Support of Learning, 27(1), 20-30.
Walter, O., & Sat, E. (2013). Dance and its influence on emotional self-control and regulation and emotional intelligence abilities among early childhood-aged children. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 6(4), 77-97.
Wehrwein, E. A., Lujan, H. L., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2007). Gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students. Advances Physiology Education, 31, 153-157.
Zhang, F. L. (2008). Thinking styles and emotions. The Journal of Psychology, 142(5), 497–515.