In this paper we examine the contributions of metacognitive and self-regulated learning theories to research on students' calibration of comprehension. Historically, cognitive psychologists have studied calibration of comprehension within a purely metacognitive framework, with an emphasis on the role of text and task factors but little consideration of factors of self. There has been a recent trend, however, towards incorporating a social cognitive perspective to the study of calibration of comprehension, with factors of self such as motivation and affect being examined more often. Among the factors of self that have been examined, self-efficacy has played a major role as it may be all but impossible to disentangle its influence on students' calibration of comprehension. Other variables of self that have been examined include ability, familiarity, ego and goal-orientation, goal setting, personality traits and susceptibility to social and cultural influences. Broadening the context in which calibration of comprehension is assessed allows a more complete examination of the rich set of interrelated processes that affect students' performance.
Alvarez, A., & Adelman, H.S. (1986). Overstatements of self-evaluations by students with
psychoeducational problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 567-571.
Archer, J. (1994). Achievement goals as a measure of motivation in university students.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19 (4), 430-446.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist,
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A., & Schunk, D.H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic
interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 41, 586-598.
Bjorkman, M. (1992). Knowledge, calibration, and the resolution: A linear model.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51, 1-21.
Boekaerts, M. (1995). Self-regulated learning: Bridging the gap between metacognition and
metamotivation theories. Educational Psychologist, 30 (4), 195-200.
Boekaerts, M. (1996). Self-regulated learning at the junction of cognition and motivation.
European Psychologist, 1 (2), 100-112.
Bol, L., & Hacker, D.J. (2001). A comparison of the effects of practice tests and traditional
review on performance and calibration. Journal of Experimental Education, 69 (2),
Borkowski, J.G., & Cavanaugh, J.C. (1979). The metamemory-memory connection: Effects
of strategy training and maintenance. Journal of General Psychology, 10 (2), 161-174.
Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., & Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation
of self-regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of
Educational Psychology, 65 (3), 317-329.
Bouffard-Bouchard, T. (1991). Influence of self-efficacy on performance in a cognitive task.
Journal of Social Psychology, 130 (3), 353-363.
Bulter, D.L. (1993). Effects of task and ego-achievement goals on information seeking
during task engagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (1), 18-31.
Butler, D.L. (1996). Promoting strategic content learning by adolescents with learning
disabilities. Exceptionality Education Canada, 6, 131-157.
Butler, D.L., & Winne, P.H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical
synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245-281.
Chen, P.P. (2002). Exploring the accuracy and predictability of the self-efficacy beliefs of
seventh-grade mathematics students. Learning and Individual Differences, 14 (1),
Commander, N.E., & Stanwyck, D.J. (1997). Illusion of knowing in adult readers: Effects of
reading skill and passage length. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 39-52.
Crowne, D.P. & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of
psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354.
Dunlosky, J., & Lipko, A. R. (2007). Metacomprehension: A brief history and how to
improve its accuracy. Current Directions in Psychological Sciences, 16 (4), 228- 232.
Eaton, M.J., & Dembo, M.H. (1997). Differences in the motivational beliefs of asian and
non-asian students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89 (3), 443-440.
Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation
to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13, 277-287.
Efklides, A. (2009). The role of metacognitive experiences in the learning process.
Psicothema, 21, 76-82.
Ferrell, W.R. (1995). A model for realism of confidence judgments: Implications for
underconfidence in sensory discrimination. Perception and Psychophysics, 57, 246-
Finney, S.J., & Schraw, G. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 161-186.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitivedevelopmental
inquiry. American Psychologist, 34 (10), 906-911.
Garavalia, L.S., & Gredler, M.E. (2002). An exploratory study of academic goal setting,
achievement calibration and self-regulated learning. Journal of Instructional
Psychology, 29, 221-230.
Glenburg, A.M., & Epstein, W. (1985). Calibration of comprehension. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11 (4), 702-718.
Glenburg, A.M., & Epstein, W. (1987). Inexpert calibration of comprehension. Memory &
Cognition, 15 (1), 84-93.
Glenburg, A.M., Sanocki, T., Epstein, W., & Morris, C. (1987). Enhancing calibration of
comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116 (2), 119-136.
Glenburg, A.M., Wilkinson, A., & Epstein, W. (1982). The illusion of knowing: Failure in
the self-assessment of comprehension. Memory & Cognition, 10, 597-602.
Glover, J.A. (1989). Improving readers’ estimates of learning from text: The role of
inserted questions. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 68-75.
Graham, S., Schwartz, S., & MacArthur, C. (1993). Improving the compositions of students
with learning disabilities using a strategy involving product and process goal setting.
Exceptional Children, 58, 322-334.
Hacker, J.D., Bol, L., Horgan, D.D., & Rakow, E.A. (2000). Test prediction and
performance in a classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92 (1), 160-
Jost, J.T., Kruglanski, A.W., & Nelson, T.O. (1998). Social metacognition: An expansionist
review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2 (2), 137-154.
Karabenick, S.A. (1996). Social influences on metacognition: Effects of colearner
questioning on comprehension monitoring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4),
Klassen, R. (2002). A question of calibration: A review of the self-efficacy beliefs of students
with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 88-102.
Klassen, R. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of the efficacy beliefs of south asian
immigrant and anglo canadian nonimmigrant early adolescents. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 96, (4), 731-742.
Kroll, M.D., & Ford, M.L. (1992). The illusion of knowing, error detection, and motivational
orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 371-378.
Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in
recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121-1134.
Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (2002). Unskilled and unaware- but why? A reply to Krueger
and Mueller (2002). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 189-192.
Lin-Agler, L.M., Moore, D, & Zabrucky, K.M. (2004). Effects of personality on
metacognitive self-assessments. College Student Journal, 38(3), 453-461.
Lin, L., Zabrucky, K. M., & Moore, D. (2002). Effects of text difficulty and adults' age on
relative calibration of comprehension. American Journal of Psychology, 115, (2),187-
Lin, L., Moore, D., & Zabrucky, K. M. (2001). An assessment of student’s calibration of
comprehension and calibration of performance using multiple measures. Reading
Psychology, 22, 111-128.
Lin, L., & Zabrucky, K. (1998). Calibration of comprehension: Research and implications for
education and instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 345-391.
Lunderberg, M.A., Fox, P.W., Brown, A.C., & Elbedour, S. (2000). Cultural influences on
confidence: Country and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92 (1), 152-159.
Magliano, J.P., Little, L.D., & Graesser, A.C. (1993). The impact of comprehension
instruction on the calibration of comprehension. Reading Research and Instruction,
Maki, R.H., & Berry, S.L. (1984). Metacomprehension of text material. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 663-679.
Maki, R.H., Foley, J.M., & Kajer, W.K., Thompson, R.C., & Wilert, M.G. (1990). Increased
processing enhances calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16 (4), 609-611.
Maki, R. H., Jonas, D., & Kallod, M. (1994). The relationship between comprehension and
metacomprehension ability. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 126-138.
Maki, R.H., & Serra, M. (1992a). The basis of test predictions for text material. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(1), 116-126.
Maki, R.H., & Serra, M. (1992b). Role of practice tests in the accuracy of test predictions on
text material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 200-210.
Maki, R.H., & Swett, S. (1987). Metamemory for narrative text. Memory & Cognition, 15
Miesner, M. T., & Maki, R. H. (2007). The role of test anxiety in absolute and relative
metacomprehension accuracy. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19 (4/5),
Moore, D., Zabrucky, K., & Commander, N. E. (1997). Metacomprehension and
comprehension performance in younger and older adults. Educational Gerontology,
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic setting. Review of Educational
Research, 66, 543-578.
Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the
literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 139-158.
Pajares, F., & Kranzler, J. (1995). Self-efficacy and general mental ability in mathematical
problem-solving. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 426-443.
Pajares, F., & Miller, M.D. (1995). Mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics outcomes:
The need for specificity of assessment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 190-198.
Pfeifer, P.E. (1994). Are we overconfident in the belief that probability forecasts are
overconfident? Organization, Behavior, and Human Decision Processes, 58, 203-213.
Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and
assessing. Theory Into Practice, 41 (4), 219-225.
Pintrich, P.R. & de Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated influences on
writing course attainment. American Educational Research, 31 (4), 845-862.
Puustinen, M., & Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Models of self-regulated learning: A review.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 45 (3), 269-286.
Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & Thiede, K. W. (2000).The rereading effect:
Metacomprehension accuracy improves across reading trials. Memory and Cognition,
28 (6), 1004-1010.
Rickey, D., & Stacy, A. M. (2000). The role of metacognition in learning chemistry. Journal
of Chemical Education, 77 (7), 915-920.
Robins, R.W., & Beer, J.S. (2001). Positive illusions about the self: Short-term benefits and
long-term costs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 (2), 340-352.
Schraw, G. (1997). The effect of generalized metacognitive knowledge on test performance
and confidence judgments. Journal of Experimental Education, 65 (2), 135-146.
Schraw, G., & Graham,T. (1997). Helping gifted students develop metacognitive awareness.
Roeper Review, 20 (1), 4-9.
Schunk, D.H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning.
Educational Psychologist, 25 (1), 71-86.
Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence.
Educational Psychologist, 32 (4), 195-208.
Snyder, M. (1987). Public appearances/private realities: The psychology of self-monitoring.
New York: Freeman.
Stetsenko, A., Little, T.D., Gordeeva, T., Grasshof, M., & Oettingen, G. (2000). Gender
effects in children’s beliefs about school performance: A cross-cultural study. Child
Development, 71 (2), 517-527.
Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S.M., & Brown, B.B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescents
achievement: An ecological perspective. American Psychologist, 47, 723-729.
Stevenson, H.W., Chen, C., Uttal, D.H. (1990). Beliefs and achievement: A study of black,
white and hispanic children. Child Development, 61 (2), 508-523.
Stigler, J.W., Smith, S., & Mao, L.W. (1985). The self-perceptions of competence by chinese
children. Child Development, 56, 1259-1270.
Stone, N.J. (2000). Exploring the relationship between calibration and self-regulated
learning. Educational Psychology Review, 12 (4), 437-473.
Thiede, K. W. & Anderson, M. C. M. (2003). Summarizing can improve metacomprehension
accuracy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 129-160.
Thiede, K. W., Anderson, M. C. M., & Therriault, D. (2003). Accuracy of metacognitive
monitoring affects learning of texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (1), 66-73.
Tobias, S., & Everson, H. T. (2002-2003). Knowing what you know and what you don't:
Further research on metacognitive knowledge monitoring. College Board Research
Report No. 2002-03. College Entrance Examination Board, New York.
Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition
and learning: conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition
Learning, 1, 3-14.
Weaver, C.A., & Bryant, D.S. (1995). Monitoring of comprehension: The role of text
difficulty in metamemory for narrative and expository text. Memory & Cognition,
Weaver, C.A. (1990). Constraining factors on calibration of comprehension. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 16, 214-222.
Wiley, J., Griffin, T. D., Thiede, K. W. (2005). Putting the comprehension in
metacomprehension. The Journal of General Psychology, 132 (4), 408-428.
Wolters, C.A. (2003). Regulation of motivation: Evaluating an underemphasized aspect of
self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 38 (4), 189-205.
Zabrucky, K., & Moore, D. (1994). Contributions of working memory and evaluation and
regulation of understanding to adults' recall of texts. Journal of Gerontology:
Psychological Sciences, 49, P201-P212.
Zabrucky, K.M., Agler, L.L., & Moore, D. (2009). Metacognition in Taiwan: Students'
Calibration of Comprehension. International Journal of Psychology, 44 (4), 305-312.
Zimmerman, B.J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview.
Educational Psychologist, 25 (1), 3-17.
Zimmerman, B.J. (1995). Self-regulation involves more than metacognition: A social
cognitive perspective. Educational Psychologist, 30 (4), 217-221.
Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary
Educational Psychology, 25, 82-91.
Zimmerman, B.J., Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing
course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31 (4), 845-862.
Zimmerman, B.J., Bandura, A, & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic
attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American
Educational Research Journal, 29, 663-676.