Main Article Content
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts). However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.
Arkoosh, M., Weber, K. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2009). The effects of motivational/reward system and a spelling racetrack on spelling performance in general education: A case report. The Open Education Journal, 2, 17-20.
Barlow, D. H., Nock, M., & Hersen, M. (2008). Single case research designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon. Beveridge, B., Weber, K., Derby, K., & McLaughlin, T. (2005). The effects of a math racetrack with two elementary students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 20(2), 58-65.
Boland, T. (1993). The importance of being literate: Reading development in primary school and its consequences for the school career in secondary education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 289-305.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (2004). Direct instruction reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Pearson.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Chambers, D., Dunn, C., & Rabren, K. (2004). Variables affecting students’ decisions to drop out of school. Remedial & Special Education.25, 314-325.
Falk, M., Band, M., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2003). The effects of reading racetracks and flashcards on sight word vocabulary of three third grade students with a specific learning disability: A further replication and analysis. International Journal of Special Education. 18(2). 57-61
Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Single case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kaufman, L., McLaughlin, T. F., Derby, K. M., & Waco, T. (2011). Employing reading racetracks and DI flashcards with and without cover, copy, and compare and rewards to teach of sight words to three students with learning disabilities in reading. Educational Research Quarterly, 37, 24-44
McLaughlin, T. F., Weber, K. Derby, K. M., Hyde, C., Violette, A., Barton, C. et al. (2009). The use of racetrack procedures to improve the academic behaviors of students in special and remedial education: Suggestions for school personnel. In O. Demir & C. Celik (Eds.). Multimedia in education and special education (pp. 51-85). Columbus, OH: Nova Publishers.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (National Institute of Health Pub. No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Pogorzelski, S., & Wheldall, K. (2005). The importance of phonological processing skills for older low-progress readers. Educational Psychology in Practice, 21, 1-22.
Printz, K., McLaughlin, T. F., & Band, M. (2006). The effects of reading racetracks and flashcards on sight word vocabulary: A case report and replication. International Journal of Special Education, 21(1), 103-108.
Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.
Rinaldi, L., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1996). The effects of reading racetracks on the fluency of see-to-say words in isolation by a student with learning disabilities. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 13, 44-52.
Rinaldi, L., Sells, D., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1997). The effects of reading racetracks on the sight word acquisition and fluency of elementary students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 219-233. Shefelbine, J. (2008). The Basic Phonics Skills Test (BPST III). Stanislaus. CA: University of California Stanislaus. Thornton, C. (1989). Basic number facts--strategies for teaching and learning. Book i: addition and subtraction. An activity based program. Washington DC: Document available from Educational Resources Information Center (ED316425) Woodcock, R., Shrank, F. A., Kevin S., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2008). Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement III. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing Company