Published
March 16, 2022
| Pages: 405-416 | Views: 112

### Abstract

This study replicates and extends prior research on multisensory mathematics instruction (Grünke, Urton, & Karnes, 2018) by integrating a touch points strategy, performance feedback, reward system, and a reinforcing game into an instructional package. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of the touch points package on the subtraction skills of four German female first year students at-risk for learning disabilities. During intervention, the students were administered eight to eleven treatment sessions to learn how to subtract a one-digit subtrahend from a two-digit minuend up to 18 crossing over the tens barrier. Results indicated that all students made substantial increases in their subtraction performance during intervention. Student performance improved from 0 to 2 out of 10 math problems solved correctly during baseline to between 8 and 10 problems correct by the end of the intervention. Effect sizes observed across the four participants indicated the effectiveness of intervention ranged from high to very high.

###
References

- Ashcraft, M. H., & Stazyk, E. H. (1981). Mental addition: A test of three verification models. Memory & Cognition, 9 (2), 185-196.
- Baroody, A. J. (1995). The role of the number-after rule in the invention of computational short cuts. Cognition and Instruction, 13(2), 189-219.
- Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Dougherty, B., Roberts, G., Pfannenstiel, K. H., & Lee, J. (2020). Mathematics performance on integers of students with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 58, 1-13.
- Bryant, D., Pfannenstiel, K., Bryant, B., Roberts, G., Fall, A., Nozari, M., & Lee, J. (2021). Improving the mathematics performance of second-grade students with mathematics difficulties through an early numeracy intervention. Behavior Modification, 45(1), 99-121.
- Bullock, J., Pierce, S., & McClellan, L. (1989). TouchMath. Colorado Springs, CO: Innovative Learning Concepts.
- Butterworth, B. (2019). Dyscalculia - From Science to Education. Oxon: Routledge.
- Dennis, M., Sharp, E., Chovanes, J., Thomas, A., Burns, R., Custer, B., & Park, J. (2016). A meta-analysis of empirical research on teaching students with mathematics learning difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 31(3), 156-168.
- Ellingsen, R., & Clinton, E. (2017). Using the TouchMath program to teach mathematical computation to at-risk students and students with disabilities. Educational Research Quarterly, 41(1), 15-40.
- Fischer, U., Moeller, K., Cress, U., & Nuerk, H. C. (2013). Interventions supporting children’s mathematics school success: A meta-analytic review. European Psychologist, 18(2), 89-113.
- Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2010). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(2), 89-100.
- Gast, D. L., Lloyd, B. P., & Ledford, J. R. (2018). Multiple baseline and multiple probe designs. In J. L. Ledford, & D. L. Gast (Eds.), Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences (pp. 239-282). New York, NY: Routledge.
- Geary, D. C. (2011). Consequences, characteristics, and causes of mathematical learning disabilities and persistent low achievement in mathematics. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32(3), 250-263.
- Geary, D. C. (2013). Early foundations for mathematics learning and their relations to learning disabilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(1), 23-27.
- Geary, D. C. (2015). The classification and cognitive characteristics of mathematical disabilities in children. In R. C. Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), Oxford handbook of numerical cognition (pp. 767-786). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
- Geary, D. C., Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., & Cormier, P. (1987). Cognitive addition: Comparison of learning disabled and academically normal elementary school children. Cognitive Development, 2(3), 249-269.
- Goldman, S. R., Pellegrino, J. W., & Mertz, D. L. (1988). Extended practice of basic addition facts: Strategy changes in learning disabled students. Cognition and Instruction, 5(3), 223-265.
- Groen, G. J., & Parkman, J. M. (1972). A chronometric analysis of simple arithmetic. Psychological Review, 79(4), 329-343.
- Grünke, M., Urton, K., & Karnes, J. (2018). The effects of a brief touch point intervention for children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD). Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 8(2), 187-197.
- Huitema, B. E., & McKean, J. W. (2000). Design specification issues in time-series intervention models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(1), 38-58.
- Jitendra, A., Lein, A., Im, S., Alghamdi, A., Hefte, S., & Mouanoutoua, J. (2018). Mathematical interventions for secondary students with learning disabilities and mathematics difficulties: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 84(2), 177-196.
- Kaufmann, L., von Aster, M., Göbel, S., Marksteiner, J., & Klein, E. (2020). Developmental dyscalculia in adults: Current issues and open questions for future research. Lernen und Lernstörungen, 9(2), 126-137.
- Kilpatrick, J., Swafford, J., & Findell, B. (Eds.). (2001). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Klauer, K. J. (1994). Diagnose- und Förderblätter: Rechenfertigkeiten 2. Schuljahr [diagnosis and training sheets: Math skills for second grade]. Berlin, Germany: Cornelsen.
- Kramer, T., & Krug, D. A. (1973). A rationale and procedure for teaching addition. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 8(3), 140-145.
- Lane, J. D., & Gast, D. L. (2014). Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: Brief review and guidelines. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24(304), 445-463.
- Lein, A., Jitendra, A., & Harwell, M. (2020). Effectiveness of mathematical word problem solving interventions for students with learning disabilities and/or mathematics difficulties: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(7), 1388-1408.
- Mazzocco, M. M. M., Chan, J. Y. C., & Prager, E. O. (2018). Working memory and SLD: Math. In T. P. Alloway (Ed.), Working memory and neurodevelopmental disorders (pp. 106 130). London, UK: Taylor and Francis Publishers.
- Mazzocco, M. M. M., & Vukovic, R. (2018). Specific learning disability: Mathematics. In V. C. Alfonso & D. P. Flanagan (Eds.), Essentials of specific learning disability identification (pp. 329-430). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
- Nelson, G., & Powell, S. (2018). A systematic review of longitudinal studies of mathematics difficulty. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(6), 523-539.
- Parker, R. I., & Vannest, K. J. (2009). An improved effect size for single-case research: Non-overlap of all pairs. Behavior Therapy, 40(4), 357-367.
- Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., Davis, J. L., & Sauber, S. B. (2011). Combining non-overlap and trend for single-case research: Tau-U. Behavior Therapy, 42(2), 284-299.
- Powell, S., Doabler, C., Akinola, O., Therrien, W., Maddox, S., & Hess, K. (2020). A synthesis of elementary mathematics interventions: Comparisons of students with mathematics difficulty with and without comorbid reading difficulty. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53(4), 244-276.
- Powell, S., & Driver, M. (2015). The influence of mathematics vocabulary instruction embedded within addition tutoring for first-grade students with mathematics difficulty. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(4), 221-233.
- Ritchie, S. J., & Bates, T. C. (2013). Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1301-1308.
- Scott, K. S. (1993). Multisensory mathematics for children with mild disabilities. Exceptionality, 4(2), 97-111.
- Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1998). Summarizing single-subject research: Issues and applications. Behavior Modification, 22(3), 221-242.
- Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Casto, G. (1987). The quantitative synthesis of single-subject research: Methodology and validation. Remedial and Special Education, 8(2), 24-33.
- Stevens, E., Rodgers, M., & Powell, S. (2018). Mathematics interventions for upper elementary and secondary students: A meta-analysis of research. Remedial and Special Education, 39(6), 327-340.
- Stock, P., Desoete, A., & Roeyers, H. (2010). Detecting children with arithmetic disabilities from kindergarten: evidence from a 3-year longitudinal study on the role of preparatory arithmetic abilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(3), 250-268.
- Tate, R. L., Perdices, M., Rosenkoetter, U., Shadish, W., Vohra, S., Barlow, D. H., ... & Wilson, B. (2016). The single-case reporting guideline in behavioral interventions (SCRIBE) 2016 statement. Journal of School Psychology, 96(7), 133-142.
- Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research. London, UK: Psychology Press.
- Tolar, T. D., Fuchs, L., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2016). Cognitive profiles of mathematical problem solving learning disability for different definitions of disability Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(3), 240-256.
- Vannest, K. J., & Ninci, J. (2015). Evaluating intervention effects in single-case research designs. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(4), 403-411.
- Waters, H. E., & Boon, R. T. (2011). Teaching money computation skills to high school students with mild intellectual disabilities via the TouchMath program: A multi-sensory approach. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 544-555.
- Wilbert, J. (2018). Package “Scan.” Retrieved from https://www.uni-potsdam.de/fileadmin01/projects/inklusion/scan/scan.pdf

###
Keywords

TouchMath, subtraction skills, single-case analysis, elementary school students, at-risk for learning disabilities

### Affiliations

Karolina Urton

University of Münster

Matthias Grünke

University of Cologne

Richard T. Boon

The University of Texas at San Antonio

###
Downloads

Download data is not yet available.