Main Article Content
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related fields comprise the top 30 occupations expected to grow the fastest by 2026. This increase in job opportunities, coupled with the evolution of technology, is creating higher demands for diversity in the labor market. Currently all student require innovative training and support from a young age to pursue STEM careers successfully. However, women and girls with disabilities face unique barriers along the STEM education pipeline. In this paper, we report the current and projected labor market trends in
the United States. We then consider how this labor market information can be used by elementary educators to engage girls with disabilities in STEM-related learning effectively. Finally, through our analysis of labor market needs and the available assessment and intervention literature, we present a science-informed framework for intervention.
Bellman, S., Burgstahler, S., & Chudler, E. H. (2018). Broadening participation by including more individuals with disabilities in STEM: Promising practices from an engineering research center. American Behavioral Scientist, 62, 645–656. doi:10.1177/0002764218768864
Black, S. E., Whitmore Schanzenback, D., & Breitwieser, A. (2017). The recent declines in women’s labor force participation. In D.W. Schanzenbach & R. Nunn (Eds.), The 51%: Driving growth through women’s economic participation (pp. 5-17). Retrieved from the Brookings Institution website: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/es_10192017_the51percent_ebook.pdf
Blalock, G., & Patton, J. R. (1996). Transition and students with learning disabilities: Creating sound futures. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(1), 7-16. doi:10.1177/002221949602900104
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, England: Harvard University Press.
Burgstahler, S. (2017). Equal access: Universal design of instruction. Retrieved from https://www.washington.edu/doit/sites/default/files/atoms/files/EA_Instruction.pdf
Burning Glass Technologies. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.burning-glass.com/solutions/education/
Bystydzienski, J. M., Eisenhart, M., & Bruning, M. (2015). High school is not too late: Developing girls' interest and engagement in engineering careers. Career Development Quarterly, 63, 88-95. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2015.00097.x
Career One Stop. (2019). Skills assessment. Retrieved from https://www.careeronestop.org/ExploreCareers/Assessments/skills.aspx
Casey Life Skills. (2017). Retrieved from https://caseylifeskills.secure.force.com
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2011a). UDL: The UDL guidelines. Retrieved from http://udlguidelines.cast.org/
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2011b). About universal design for learning. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html
Emsi. (2018). Our Data. Retrieved from https://www.economicmodeling.com/
Feldhaus, C., & Bentrem, K. (2015). STEM mentoring and the use of the principles of adult mentoring inventory. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 4, 213-235. doi:10.1108/IJMCE-11-2014-0039
Fichten, C. S., Asuncion, J. V., Barile, M., Robillard, C., Fossey, M. E., & Lamb, D. (2003). Canadian postsecondary students with disabilities: Where are they? The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 33, 71-114. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/cjhe/index.php/cjhe/article/view/183441
Fifolt, M., & Searby, L. (2010). Mentoring in Cooperative Education and Internships: Preparing Protégés for STEM Professions. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 11(1), 17-26. Retrieved from https://www.jstem.org/
Gregory, S. (2016). Stereotypes can be threatening. Retrieved from the American Association of University Women website: https://www.aauw.org/article/stereotypes-can-be-threatening/
Griffiths, A. J., Alsip, J., Hart, S., Round, R. L., & Brady, J. (in press). Together we can do so much: A systematic review and conceptual framework of collaboration in schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology.
Griffiths, A. J., Cosier, M., & Morgan, S. (2019). Research-to-practice brief: Using labor market projections for successful transition planning. Thompson Policy Institute Disability Summit Fourth Annual Report. Orange, CA: Chapman University, Attallah College of Educational Studies.
Griffiths, A. J., Giannantonio, C. M., Hurley-Hanson, A. E., & Cardinal, D. (2016). Autism in the workplace: Assessing the transition needs of young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Business and Management, 22(1), 5-22. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.chapman.edu/education_articles/231/
Griffiths, A. J., & Miles Nash, A. (2019). Making STEM education inclusive: Opening doors to engage girls and women with disabilities. Thompson Policy Institute Disability Summit Fourth Annual Report. Orange, CA: Chapman University, Attallah College of Educational Studies.
Hanna, W. J., & Rogovsky, B. (1991). Women with disabilities: Two handicaps plus. Disability, Handicap & Society, 6, 49–63. doi:10.1080/02674649166780041
Harley, E. K. (2011). The impact of interpersonal relationships on postschool employment outcomes and community satisfaction for young women with learning disabilities: An ecological perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. (UMI No. 3485949)
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400-1414 § (2004).
Institute for the Future & Dell Technologies. (2017). The next era of human machine partnerships report. Retrieved from https://www.delltechnologies.com/content/dam/ delltechnologies/assets/perspectives/2030/pdf/SR1940_IFTFforDellTechnologies_Human-Machine_070517_readerhigh-res.pdf
Izzo, M. V., & Bauer, W. M. (2015). Universal design for learning: enhancing achievement and employment of STEM students with disabilities. Universal Access in the Information Society, 14(1), 17-27. doi:10.1007/s10209-013-0332-1
Jones, L. K. (2014). Career key. Retrieved from http://www.careerkey.org/
Joseph, N. M., Hailu, M., & Boston, D. (2017). Black women’s and girls’ persistence in the P-20 mathematics pipeline: Two decade of children, youth, and adult education research. Review of Research in Education, 41, 203-227. doi:10.3102/0091732X16689045
Justice, H., & Norwood, C. (2016). Purposeful planning: Using data to drive programs of study. Techniques, 91(6), 41–44. Retrieved from https://www.acteonline.org/publications/techniques/
Kendricks, K. D., Nedunuri, K. V., & Arment, A. R. (2013). Minority student perceptions of the impact of mentoring to enhance academic performance in STEM disciplines. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 14(2), 38-46. Retrieved from https://www.jstem.org/
Landuvar, L. C. (2013). Disparities in STEM employment by sex, race, and Hispanic origin (Report No. ACS-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Lee, A. (2011). A comparison of postsecondary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrollment for students with and without disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34, 72-82. doi:10.1177/0885728810386591
Marino, M. T. (2010). Defining a technology research agenda for elementary and secondary students with learning and other high-incidence disabilities in inclusive science classrooms. Journal of Special Education Technology, 25(1), 1–27. doi:10.1177/016264341002500101
Mind Tools. (2019). SMART goals: How to make your goals achievable. Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/get-started.htm
Modi, K., Schoenberg, J., & Salmond, K. (2012). Generation STEM: What girls say about science, technology, engineering, and math (A Report from the Girl Scout Research Institute). New York, NY: Girl Scouts of the USA.
Muthumbi, J. W. (2008). Enhancing transition outcome for youth with disabilities: The partnerships for youth initiative. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 29, 93-103. Retrieved from https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-vocational-rehabilitation/jvr00436
Myers and Briggs Foundation. (2019). Take the MBTI Instrument. Retrieved from https://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/take-the-mbti-instrument/home.htm
National Science Foundation. (2017). Employed women scientists and engineers, as a percentage of selected occupations: 2015. Retrieved from https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2017/ nsf17310/digest/occupation/women.cfm
Neal, J. W., & Neal, Z. P. (2013). Nested or networked? Future directions for ecological systems theory. Social Development, 22, 722-737. doi:10.1111/sode.12018
Noonan, R. (2017). Women in STEM: 2017 Update (ESA Issue Brief No. 06-17). Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Commerce website: https://www.commerce.gov/sites/default/files/migrated/reports/women-in-stem-2017-update.pdf
O’Day, B., & Foley, S. (2008). What do we know, and not know, about women with disabilities in the workforce? Impact: Feature Issue on Employment and Women With Disabilities, 21(1), 4-5. Retrieved from https://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/211/211.pdf
O*Net Resource Center. (2019). Tools. Retrieved from https://www.onetcenter.org/tools.html
PAIRIN. (2017). Soft skills assessment. Retrieved from https://pairin.com/soft-skills-assessment/
Rashid, B. (2016). Rise of the freelance economy. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/brianrashid/2016/01/26/the-rise-of-the-freelancer-economy/
Rowe, D. A., Mazzotti, V. L., Hirano, K., & Alverson, C. Y. (2015). Assessing transition skills in the 21st century. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47, 301-309. doi:10.1177/0040059915587670
Schreffler, J., Vasquez, E., III, Chini, J., & James, W. (2019). Universal design for learning in postsecondary STEM education for students with disabilities: A systematic literature review. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(8), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s40594-019-0161-8
Simplican, S. C., Leader, G., Kosciulek, J., & Leahy, M. (2015). Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: An ecological model of social networks and community participation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 18–29. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.10.008
Society of Women Engineers. (2018). Fast facts. Retrieved from https://research.swe.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18-SWE-Research-Flyer_FINAL.pdf
Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1988.1373
Stamp, L., Banerjee, M., & Brown, F. C. (2014). Self-advocacy and perceptions of college readiness among students with ADHD. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 27(2), 139–160.
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of
African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1687
Sumi, V. S. (2012). Education and gender discrimination. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Women’s Human Rights – A Feminist Discourse, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad, India. Retrieved https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543630.pdf
Tabak, L. A., & Collins, F. S. (2011). Weaving a richer tapestry in biomedical science. Science,
333(6045), 940-941. doi:10.1126/science.1211704
Turnbull, A. (2010). Transitioning to enviable lives for adults with autism and beyond evidence-based practice: Wisdom-based action as a process of facilitating IDEA outcomes (Mollie Villeret Davis Lecture). Retrieved from https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/74308
Turnbull, H. R., Turnbull, A. P., & Cooper, D. (2018). The supreme court, Endrew, and the appropriate education of students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 84, 124-140. doi:10.1177/0014402917734150
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2017). A transition guide to postsecondary education and employment for students and youth with disabilities. Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017a). Employment projections. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/ecopro.nr0.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017b). May 2017 National occupational employment and wage estimates United States. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/oes/ current/oes_nat.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018a). Fastest growing occupations, 2016 and projected 2026. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/fastest-growing-occupations.htm
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018b, June 21). Persons with a disability: Labor force characteristics news release [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/disabl.htm
Walrod, W., & Walrod, P. (2018). Labor market analytics report [Internal unpublished report]. Retrieved from https://www.qidianusa.com/
World Economic Forum. (2018). Future jobs report. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf