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In Vietnam, the number of children identified as experiencing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has rapidly increased. Inclusive education (IE) has been implemented with children with ASD for more than 20 years. The effectiveness with which IE has been implemented to date with children with ASD has previously not been assessed. In this study, we examined (a) the implementation of IE for children with ASD in elementary schools, (b) family and community participation in IE, and (c) factors affecting IE. A mixed-method research design was employed that included surveys and interviews. Surveys included multiple-choice questions on a broad range of IE practices. Ten professionals, community leaders, and school leaders, 263 teachers, and 114 parents of elementary-age children with ASD in Hanoi and Ha Giang participated in the study. Results revealed there were a number of children with ASD who were not attending elementary school. Where IE was implemented for children with ASD, teachers and families often did not receive adequate training and support, thus discouraging their efforts. Participants expressed a desire for more clearly articulated IE practices, training for teachers and families, and cross-disciplinary collaboration.
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