In Vietnam, the number of children identified as experiencing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has rapidly increased. Inclusive education (IE) has been implemented with children with ASD for more than 20 years. The effectiveness with which IE has been implemented to date with children with ASD has previously not been assessed. In this study, we examined (a) the implementation of IE for children with ASD in elementary schools, (b) family and community participation in IE, and (c) factors affecting IE. A mixed-method research design was employed that included surveys and interviews. Surveys included multiple-choice questions on a broad range of IE practices. Ten professionals, community leaders, and school leaders, 263 teachers, and 114 parents of elementary-age children with ASD in Hanoi and Ha Giang participated in the study. Results revealed there were a number of children with ASD who were not attending elementary school. Where IE was implemented for children with ASD, teachers and families often did not receive adequate training and support, thus discouraging their efforts. Participants expressed a desire for more clearly articulated IE practices, training for teachers and families, and cross-disciplinary collaboration.
Alharbi, K. A., Alharbi, A. A., Al-Thunayyan, F. S., Alsuhaibani, K. A., Alsalameh, N. S., Alhomaid, M. H., . . . Hamid, P. F. (2019). Schools teachers’ knowledge about autism in Al-Badayacity, Al-Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materia Socio-Medica, 31(1), 4-9. doi:10.5455/msm.2019.31.4-9
Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional children, 73(3), 264-287. Doi: 10.1007/s40489-014-0020-y
Busby, R., Ingram, R., Bowron, R., Oliver, J., & Lyons, B. (2012). Teaching elementary children with autism: Addressing teacher challenges and preparation needs. The Rural Educator, 33(2), 27-35. Retrieved from http://epubs.library.msstate.edu/index.php/ruraleducator/article/view/146
Davidson, A. (2015). The effectiveness of strategies that promote the inclusion of children with Autism in mainstream classrooms. The STeP Journal, 2, 88-106. Retrieved from http://ojs.cumbria.ac.uk/index.php/step/article/view/263
Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., . . . Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125, e17-e23. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0958
Denning, C. B., & Moody, A. K. (2013). Supporting students with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive settings: Rethinking instruction and design. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 3(1), Article 6. Retrieved from https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/ejie/vol3/iss1/6/
Dybvik, A. C. (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: What happens when the children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next, 4, 42-50. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/
Edward, G. (2015). Teachers’ knowledge and perceived challenges of teaching children with autism in Tanzanian regular primary schools. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection, 3(5), 36-47. Retrieved from http://www.idpublications.org/
Eldar, E., Talmor, R., & Wolf‐Zukerman, T. (2010). Successes and difficulties in the individual inclusion of the children with autism spectrum disorders in the eyes of their coordinators. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14, 97-114. doi:10.1080/13603110802504150
Gavaldá, J. M. S., & Qinyi, T. (2012). Improving the process of inclusive education in children with ASD in mainstream schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4072-4076. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.200
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. (2019). Number of classes, direct teaching teachers and pupils of general education as of 30 September. Retrieved from https://www.gso.gov.vn/
Gutstein, S. E., & Gutstein, H. R. (2009). The RDI book: Forging new pathways for autism, Asperger’s and PDD with the relationship development intervention program. Houston, Tex. , ST: Connections Center.
Hansen, S. G., Blakely, A. W., Dolata, J. K., Raulston, T., & Machalicek, W. (2014). Children with autism in the inclusive preschool classroom: A systematic review of single-subject design interventions on social communication skills. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1, 192-206. doi:10.1007/s40489-014-0020-y
Hiraiwa, M. (2012). High-functioning autistic children: From a physician‘s perspective. Japan Medical Association Journal, 55, 298-302. Retrieved from https://www.med.or.jp/english/journal/toc/current.html
Hoang, M. V., Le, V. T., Chu, T. T. Q., Le, B. N., Duong, M. D., Thanh, N. M., . . . Bui, T. T. H. (2019). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and their relation to selected socio-demographic factors among children aged 18–30 months in northern Vietnam, 2017. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13, 29-37. doi:10.1186/s13033-019-0285-8
Humphrey, N. (2008). Including pupils with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream schools. Support for Learning, 23, 41-47. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9604.2007.00367.x
Kasari, C., Locke, J., Gulsrud, A., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2011). Social networks and friendships at school: Comparing children with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 533-544. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1076-x
Koegel, L., Matos-Freden, R., Lang, R., & Koegel, R. (2012). Interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive school settings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19, 401-412. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2010.11.003
Lal, R. (2005). Effect of inclusive education on language and social development of children with autism. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 16, 77-84. Retrieved from http://www.aifoeng.it/archives/disability/apdrj/2005_jan_apdrj.pdf
Le, N. A., Duong, H. T., Pham, H. T., Bui, X. T. K., Tran, C. V. (2015). Research on inclusive education model for children with developmental disorders in preschool. Hanoi National University of Education Journal of Sciences, 60, 64-74. Retrieved from http://stdb.hnue.edu.vn/portal/journals.php?articleid=3503
Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Thomson, N., & Scott, H. (2013). Educators’ challenges of including children with autism spectrum disorder in mainstream classrooms. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 60, 347-362. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2013.846470
Liu, Y., Li, J., Zheng, Q., Zaroff, C. M., Hall, B. J., Li, X., & Hao, Y. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of autism spectrum disorder in a stratified sampling of preschool teachers in China. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 142-153. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0845-2
Loiacono, V., & Valenti, V. (2010). General Education Teachers Need to Be Prepared to Co-Teach the Increasing Number of Children with Autism in Inclusive Settings. International Journal of Special Education, 25(3), 24-32.
Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3-9. doi:10.1037//0022-006x.55.1.3
Mai, P. T., & Le, T. T. (2018). Supporting the inclusive for students with developmental disorders at Thanh Tri Primary School – Hanoi. Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences Journal of Educational Sciences, 9, 105-109. Retrieved from http://www.vnies.edu.vn/tin-tuc/tap-chi-khoa-hoc/17512/muc-luc-va-tom-tat-tap-chi-khoa-hoc-giao-duc-viet-nam-so-09---thang-09-nam-2018
Ministry of Education and Training (MOET). (2017). Statistics of primary education. Retrieved from http://www.moet.gov.vn/
Ministry of Labor, War Invalids, & Social Affairs. (2019). Circular Number 01/2019/TT-BLĐTBXH stipulating the determination of disability level by the Council of disability determination. Retrieved from http://congbao.chinhphu.vn/noi-dung-van-ban-so-01-2019-tt-bldtbxh-28499?cbid=25938
Ncube, A. C. (2014). Social and psychological effects of inclusive classrooms: Insights from teachers of inclusive classes in selected primary schools in Zimbabwe. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 5, 449-556. Retrieved from http://jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.com
Ngo, D. X. (2009). Research on perceptions of the autistic children in Ho Chi Minh City (Doctoral dissertation). Institute of Psychology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Nguyen, K. T., & Nguyen, P. H. (2016). Autism knowledge in the community in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2017: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Science and Research, 7, 1442-1445. Retrieved from https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v7i3/ART20181010.pdf
Nguyen, P. T. (2018). Linguistic characteristics of autistic children of preschool age. Journal of Education, 5, 130-132. Retrieved from https://tapchigiaoduc.moet.gov.vn/vi/magazine/so-dac-biet-ki-1-thang-5/27-dac-diem-ngon-ngu-cua-tre-roi-loan-pho-tu-ki-lua-tuoi-mam-non-5961.html
Nguyen, T. H., Nguyen, T. T. N., Le, B. V., Thanh, N. M., Nguyen, T. K. L., & Nguyen, H. H. (2017). Whole-exome sequencing identifies two novel missense mutations (p. L111P and p. R3048C) of RYR3 in a Vietnamese patient with autism spectrum disorders. Genes & Genomics, 39, 301-306. doi:10.1007/s13258-016-0495-2
Nguyen, T. T. (2014a). Measures to develop communication skills for autistic children 3-4 years old (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.vnies.edu.vn/upload/Boiduong/Luan%20An%20Thanh.pdf
Nguyen, Y. T. H. et al. (2014b). Examining early intervention and inclusive education for the children with autism in Vietnam nowadays and in the period 2011-2020 [State-level research project]. Retrieved from https://www.most.gov.vn/vn/tin-tuc/2783/nghiem-thu-de-tai-doc-lap-cap-nha-nuoc-ve-tre-tu-ki.aspx
Panerai, S., Zingale, M., Trubia, G., Finocchiaro, M., Zuccarello, R., Ferri, R., & Elia, M. (2009). Special education versus inclusive education: The role of the TEACCH program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 874-882. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0696-5
Pham, M. M. (2013). Autism and autistic children’s education. Journal of Education, 311, 24-25, 35. Retrieved from https://tapchigiaoduc.moet.gov.vn/vi/magazine/so-311-ki-i-thang-6/10-tu-ki-va-giao-duc-tre-tu-ki-1567.html
Pieterse, M., Treolar, R., Cairns, S., Uther, D., & Brar, E. (1985). Küçük Adımlar gelişimsel geriliği olan çocuklara yönelik erkene ğitim programı [Small Steps: An early intervention program for children with developmental delays]. North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia: Macquarie University, Special Education Centre.
Rotheram‐Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(11), 1227-1234.
Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J., Dalrymple, N., & Jung, L. A. (2010). Examining the quality of IEPs for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1459-1470. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1003-1
Runcharoen, S. (2014). The development of social interaction of children with autism in inclusive classrooms. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4108-4113. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.899
Sanz-Cervera, P., Fernández-Andrés, M. I., Pastor-Cerezuela, G., & Tárraga-Mínguez, R. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ knowledge, misconceptions and gaps about autism spectrum disorder. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(3), 212-224. DOI: 10.1177/088840641770096.
Schopler, E., Mesibov, G. B., Shigley, R. H., & Bashford, A. (1984). Helping autistic children through their parents. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), The effects of autism on the family (pp. 65-81). Boston, MA: Springer
Simpson, R. L., de Boer-Ott, S. R., & Smith-Myles, B. (2003). Inclusion of learners with autism spectrum disorders in general education settings. Topics in Language Disorders, 23, 116-133. doi:10.1097/00011363-200304000-00005
Sussman, F., & Lewis, R. B. (1999). More than words: A guide to helping parents promote communication and social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Hanen Centre.
Tran, C. V., Weiss, B., Khuc, T. N., Tran, T. T. L., Nguyen, T. T. N., Nguyen, H. T. K., & Dao, T. T. T. (2015). Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam. Health Psychology Report, 3(3). Doi: 10.5114/hpr.2015.53125
Tran, C. V., & Weiss, B. (2018). Characteristics of agencies providing support services for children with autism spectrum disorders in Vietnam. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 8, 116-121. doi:10.18178/ijssh.2018.V8.946
Tran, C. V., & Ngo, D. X. (2017). The effectiveness of the autism intervention program is based on the combination of the family and the intervention centers. Vietnam Journal of Science & Technology, 6, 48-54.
Tran, C. V., & Nguyen, Y. H. T. (2017). Proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders: The number of statistics. Hanoi National University of Education Journal of Sciences, 62(9AB), 322-330. doi10.18173/2354-1075.2017-0112
Tran, C. V., Vu, H. T. T., Nguyen, A. P., Vu, T. V., & Vo, M. T. K. (2018). Effectiveness of community-based behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Hanoi National University of Education Journal of Science, 63(9), 178-284.
Vu, H. S., Whittaker, A., Whittaker, M., & Rodger, S. (2014). Living with autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 278-285. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.038
Vu, H. T. T., Tran, V. Q. & Tran, C. V. (2017). Community-based model of intervention for the children with autism spectrum disorder: Organization of implementation and initial results. Proceedings of the Application of Psychology, Education and Developmental Disorders Intervention Conference (pp. 324-334).
Vu, T. V., & Tran, C. V. (2014). Attitude of preschool teachers in Hanoi on autism spectrum disorder. Proceedings of National Mental Health in Schools Conference (pp. 486-496).
Waddington, E. M., & Reed, P. (2017). Comparison of the effects of mainstream and special school on national curriculum outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder: An archive‐based analysis. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 17, 132-142. doi:10.1111/1471-3802.12368
Wilson, K. P., & Landa, R. J. (2019). Barriers to educator implementation of a classroom-based intervention for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Education, 4, Article 27. doi:10.3389/feduc.2019.00027
Wiseman, S. (2015). The use of music as an educational intervention for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Research in Teacher Education, 5(1), 7-14. Retrieved from https://www.uel.ac.uk/research/research-in-teacher-education
Witoonchart, P., & Huang, Y. J. (2018). Inclusive or segregated classroom: A question of educating children with autism. Ramathibodi Medical Journal, 41, 54-66. Retrieved from https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ramajournal/article/view/125166
World Bank. (2019). The World Bank in Vietnam: Overview. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/vietnam/overview
Zuki, N. H. M., & Rahman, N. S. N. A. (2016). Challenges Malaysian teachers face in the inclusion of autistic students in the normal classroom. Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 4, 33-41. Retrieved from http://irep.iium.edu.my/52058/