Inclusion in Vietnam: More than a Quarter Century of Implementation

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Nguyen Xuan Hai Richard A. Villa Le Van Tac Jacqueline S. Thousand Pham Minh Muc


This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services in Vietnam from their introduction to the current expansion of inclusive education for children and youth with disabilities. Impacts reported include increased educational opportunity for and inclusion of children with disabilities, the development of national policy and provincial and local infrastructures for inclusive education, and capacity building for teachers through preservice, in-service, and master’s and doctoral programs expressly designed to prepare personnel to forward inclusive education throughout the country.


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HAI, Nguyen Xuan et al. Inclusion in Vietnam: More than a Quarter Century of Implementation. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, p. 257-264, jan. 2020. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 15 july 2020.


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