Placement of Students with Extensive Support Needs in California School Districts: The State of Inclusion and Exclusion

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Meghan Cosier Audri Sandoval-Gomez Donald N. Cardinal Shayne Brophy


Access to general education settings for students with disabilities varies greatly among and within states across the United States and worldwide. The variability in placement and lack of access to general education for students with disabilities, particularly students with extensive support needs, are reasons to identify factors associated with placement and then address the role of current policy. Explored in this study were the placement of students with extensive support needs in 938 school districts across the State of California in the United States and the
relationship between placement and economic and demographic factors. Results suggest alarmingly low access to general education classrooms for students with extensive support needs, significant variability in placement, and relationships between placement and factors, such as total enrollment, race, and expenditure.


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COSIER, Meghan et al. Placement of Students with Extensive Support Needs in California School Districts: The State of Inclusion and Exclusion. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, p. 249-255, jan. 2020. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 15 july 2020.


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