The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course
Given the deficiencies of readability formulae as reliable tools for measuring text readability in educational settings, this study aims to offer a new measure to improve the current methods of testing the readability levels of texts through the incorporation of the newly-developed concept of emotioncy. To this end, a group of 221 students were selected from the 2nd to 4th grades of an elementary school. They were given a passage from a 5th grade textbook whose readability was measured by Flesch and Fog indices. The students were asked to fill out an 8-item emotioncy scale along with a difficulty-finding item. One-way ANOVA and correlational analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that learners’ comprehension increases as a result of an increase in their emotioncy levels. In the end, the results were discussed and some suggestions were made to employ emotioncy in measuring readability.
|Pages||109 - 123|
|Issue||IEJEE, Volume 9, Issue 1|
|Date of acceptance||24 September 2016|
Ausubel, D. (1965). A cognitive structure view of word and concept meaning. In R. C. Anderson & D. Ausubel (Eds.). Readings in the psychology of cognition (pp. 103-115). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bailin, A., & Grafstein, A. (2001). The linguistic assumptions underlying readability formulae: A critique. Language & Communication, 21(3), 285-301.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. NY: Longman.
Chall, J. S., & Dale, E. (1995). Readability revisited: The new Dale-Chall readability formula. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Dale, E., & Chall, J. S. (1948). A formula for predicting readability: Instructions. Educational Research Bulletin, 27, 37-54.
Davison, A. (1981). Readability--Appraising text difficulty. Reading Education Report No. 24.
Davison, A., & Kantor, R. N. (1982). On the failure of readability formulas to define readable texts: A case study from adaptations. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 187-209.
Davison, A., & Bolt, B. (1986). Readability, and questions of textbook difficulty (Reading Education Report No. 66). Urbana, Illinois: Center for the Study of Reading. Retrieved From http://www.eric.ed.gov/
Davison, A. (1988). Linguistic complexity and text comprehension: Readability issues reconsidered. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dreyer, L. G. (1984). Readability and responsibility. Journal of Reading, 27(4), 334-338.
El-Haddad, N., Spooner, C., Faruqi, N., Denney-Wilson, E., & Harris, M. (2016). Readability and content analysis of lifestyle education resources for weight management in Australian general practice. BMC Obesity. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1186/540608-016-0097-1
Flesch, R. (1948). A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(3), 221.
Flesch, R. (1951). How to test readability. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Flesch, R. F. (1979). How to write plain English: A book for lawyers and consumers. New York: HarperCollins.
Fry, E. (1968). A readability formula that saves time. Journal of Reading, 11, 513–516.
Fry, E. (1975). The readability principle. Language Arts, 52(6), 847-851.
Greenspan, S. I. (1992). Infancy and early childhood: The practice of clinical assessment and intervention with emotional and developmental challenges. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
Gunning, R. (1968). The technique of clear writing. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Instone, E. A. (2011). The variance amongst the results of readability formulas regarding us history textbooks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Bowling Green State University.
Klare, G. R. (1976). A second look at the validity of readability formulas. Journal of Literacy Research, 8(2), 129-152.
Krashen, S. (1982). Theory versus practice in language training. In R.W. Blair (Ed.). Innovative approaches to language teaching (pp. 15–24). Rowley, MA: Newburry House Publishers.
Lenzner, T. (2014). Are readability formulas valid tools for assessing survey question difficulty? Sociological Methods & Research, 43 (4), 677-698.
Maftoon, P., & Daghigh. M. (2001). The yardstick for measuring the readability level of Persian translations of English texts. Retrieved from http://www.ensani.ir/storage/Files/20110126112624-35.pdf
McNamara, D. S., Ozuru, Y., & Floyd, R. G. (2011). Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers' prior knowledge. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 229-257.
Meade, C. D., & Smith, C. F. (1991). Readability formulas: Cautions and criteria. Patient Education and Counselling, 17(2), 153-158.
Oakland, T., & Lane, H. B. (2004). Language, reading, and readability formulas: Implications for developing and adapting tests. International Journal of Testing, 4(3), 239-252.
Piaget, J. (1926). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge and Kegan.
Pichert, J. W., & Elam, P. (1985). Readability formulas may mislead you. Patient Education and Counseling, 7(2), 181-191.
Pishghadam, R. (2015, October). Emotioncy in language education: From exvolvement to involvement. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Language Teaching, Literature, and Translation Studies. Iran, Mashhad.
Pishghadam, R. (2016a, May). Emotioncy, extraversion, and anxiety in willingness to communicate in English. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Language, Education and Innovation. England: London.
Pishghadam, R. (2016b, March). Giving a boost to the working memory: Emotioncy and cognitive load theory. A paper presented in The First National Conference on English Language Teaching, Literature, and Translation. Ghoochan, Iran.
Pishghadam, R., Adamson, B., & Shayesteh, S. (2013). Emotion-based language instruction (EBLI) as a new perspective in bilingual education. Multilingual Education, 3(9), 1-16.
Pishghadam, R., Baghaei, P., & Seyednozadi, Z. (in press). Introducing emotioncy as a potential source of test bias: A mixed Rasch modelling study. International Journal of Testing.
Pishghadam, R., Jajarmi, H., & Shayesteh, S. (2016). Conceptualizing sensory relativism in light of emotioncy: A movement beyond linguistic relativism. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 4(2), 11–21.
Pishghadam, R., & Shayesteh, S. (in press). Emotioncy: A post-linguistic approach toward vocabulary learning and retention. Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences.
Pishghadam, R, Tabatabaeyan, M. S., & Navari, S. (2013). A critical and practical analysis of first language acquisition theories: The origin and development. Iran, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications.
Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. London: Longman.
Raj, S., Sharma, V., L., Singh, A., J. & Goel, S. (2016). Evaluation of quality and readability of health information websites identified through India’s major search engines. Advances in Preventive Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1155/2016/4815285
Rygiel, M. A. (1982). Readability formulas: Pluses and minuses. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 9(1), 45–49.
Sattler, J. M. (2002). Assessment of children: Behavioral and clinical applications. San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher.
Schriver, K. A. (1989). Evaluating text quality: The continuum from text-focused to reader-focused methods. IEEE Transactions on Professional communication, 32(4), 238-255.
Schriver, K. A. (2000). Readability formulas in the new millennium: what's the use? ACM Journal of Computer Documentation (JCD), 24(3), 138-140.
Shrum, J., & Glisan, E. (1994). Teacher's handbook: Contextualized language instruction. USA: Heinle & Heinle.
Soltani, S., & Koosha, M. (2015). Text readability in translation of children’s literature. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Spache, G. (1953). A new readability formula for primary-grade reading materials. The Elementary School Journal, 53(7), 410-413.
Stevick, E. W. (1996). Memory, meaning and method: A view of language teaching. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Tyson, L. (2006). Critical theory today. London: Routledge.
Van Den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., Lousberg, S., & Visser, G. (2011). Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschool and early elementary school children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 259-268.
Wagner, A. D., Schacter, D. L., Rotte, M., Koutstaal, W., Maril, A., Dale, et al. (1998). Building memories: Remembering and forgetting of verbal experiences as predicted by brain activity. Science, 281, 1188–1191.
Wheeler, G., & Sherman, T. F. (1983). Readability formulas revisited. Science and Children, 20(7), 38–40.
Yule, G. (2014). The study of language. Cambridge University Press.
Zakaluk, B. L., & Samuels, S. J. (1988). Readability: Its past, Present, and Future. Newark, Del: International Reading Association.
Zamanian, M., & Heydari, P. (2012). Readability of texts: State of the art. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(1), 43-53.
Timothy A. BRUSSEAU, James C. HANNON
Fahretdin Hasan ADAGİDELİ , Seda SARAÇ, Engin ADER
Mohamad Syarif SUMANTRI , Retni SATRIANI
Ercan ARI, Berfu KIZILASLAN TUNÇER, Mehmet Kaan DEMİR
İsmail Özgür ZEMBAT
Abdullah M. SERAYE
Miftachul HUDA , Kamarul Azmi JASMI , Aminudin HEHSAN , Mohd Ismail MUSTARI , Masitah SHAHRILL , Bushrah BASIRON , Saikou Kawsu GASSAMA