Erol TAŞ, Salih GÜLEN, Zeynep ÖNER, Cengiz ÖZYÜREK
|Pages||87 - 108|
|Issue||IEJEE, Volume 9, Issue 1|
|Date of acceptance||29 August 2016|
In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs), and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc.), students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.
|Pages||87 - 108|
|Issue||IEJEE, Volume 9, Issue 1|
|Date of acceptance||29 August 2016|
Abell, S. K. (2007). Research on science teacher knowledge. In S. K. Abelland N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Science Education, pp.1105-1151. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Atkin, J. M., Coffey, J. E., Moorthy, S., Sato, M. & Thibeault, M. (2005). Designing everyday assessment in the science classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
Avraamidou, L. & Zembal-Saul, C. (2005). Giving priority to evidence in science teaching: A first-year elementary teacher’s specialized practices and knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(9), 965-986. doi: 10.1002/tea.20081
Bazeley, P. & Jackson, K. (2015). Qualitative data analysis with NVIVO (Bakla, A. & Demir, S.C., Tr.). Ankara: Ani Press.
Berg, T. & Brouwer, W. (1991).Teacher awareness of student alternate conceptions about rotational motion and gravity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 3-18. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660280103.
Beyer, C. J. & Davis, E. A. (2011).Learning to critique and adapt science curriculum materials: Examining the development of pre service elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Science Education, 96(1), 130-157.doi: 10.1002/sce.20466.
Bozkurt, O. & Kaya, O. N. (2008). Teaching about ozone layer depletion in Turkey: Pedagogical content knowledge of science teachers. Public Understanding of Science, 17(2), 261-276. doi: 10.1177/0963662506071787.
Childs, A. & McNicholl, J. (2007). Investigating the relationship between subject content knowledge and pedagogical practice through the analysis of classroom discourse. International Journal of Science Education, 29(13), 1629-1653. doi: 10.1080/09500690601180817.
Cochran, K. F., DeRuiter, J. A & King, R. A. (1993). Pedagogical Content Knowing: An integrative model for teacher preparation, Journal of Teacher Education, 44, 263-272. doi: 10.1177/0022487193044004004.
Cochran, K. F., King, R. A. & DeRuiter, J. A. (1991). Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Tentative Model for Teacher Preparation. East Lansing, MI: National Centre for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED340683).
Cohen, R. & Yarden, A. (2009). Experienced junior-high-school teachers’ PCK in light of a curriculum change: “The cell is to be studied longitudinally”. Research in Science Education, 39, 131-155. doi: 10.1007/s11165-008-9088-7.
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative Research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd Ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Czerniak, C. & Chiarelott, L. (1999). Teacher education for effective science instruction- a social cognitive perspective. Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 49-5. doi: 10.1177/002248719004100107.
Demirdöğen, B., Hanuscin, D. L., Kondakçı-Uzuntiryaki, E. & Köseoğlu, F. (2015). Development and nature of pre service chemistry teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for nature of science. Research Science Education, 46(4), 575-612. doi: 10.10007/s11165-015-9472-z
DiBiase, W. & McDonald, J. R. (2015). Science teacher attitudes toward inquiry-based teaching and learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 88(2), 29-38.doi:10.1080/00098655.2014.987717.
Driel, J. H-V., Jong, O.-D. & Verloop, N. (2002). The development of pre service chemistry teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Science Teacher Education, 86, 572-590. doi: 10.1002/sce.10010.
Falk, A. (2011). Teachers learning from professional development in elementary science: Reciprocal relations between formative assessment and pedagogical content knowledge. Science Education, 96, 265-290. doi: 10.1002/sce.20473.
Gess-Newsome, J. & Lederman, N. G. (Eds.). (1999). Explaining pedagogical content knowledge. Dordrecht. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Grossman, P. L. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education, New York: Teachers College Press.
Halim, L. & Meerah, M. S. (2002). Science trainee teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and its influence on physics teaching. Research in Science and Technological Education, 20(2), 215-225.doi: 10.1080/0263514022000030462.
Henze, I., Van Driel, J. & Verloop, N. (2008). Development of experienced science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of models of the solar system and the universe. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1321-1342.doi: 10.1080/09500690802187017.
Hope J. & Townsend, M. (1983). Student teachers’ understanding of science concepts. Research in Science Education, 13, 177-183.doi: 10.1007/BF02356704.
Jones, A. & Moreland, J. (2004). Enhancing practicing primary school teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in technology. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 14, 121-140. doi: 10.1023/B:ITDE.0000026513.48316.39.
Jones, A. & Moreland, J. (2005). The importance of pedagogical content knowledge in assessment for learning practices: A case-study of whole-school approach. The Curriculum Journal, 16(2), 193-206. doi: 10.1080/09585170500136044.
Kamen, M. (1996). A teacher’s implementation of authentic assessment in an elementary science classroom. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(8), 859-877. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199610)33:8<859::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-V.
Kind, V. (2009). Pedagogical content knowledge in science education: Perspectives and potential for progress. Studies in Science Education, 45(2), 169-204. doi: 10.1080/03057260903142285.
Kolb, S. M. (2012). Grounded theory and the constant comparative method: Valid research strategies for educators. Journal of Emerging Trends on Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 3(1), 83-86.
Kramarski, B. (2009). Developing a pedagogical problem solving view for mathematics teachers with two reflection programs. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2(1), 137-153.
Lederman, N. G, Gess-Newsome, J. & Latz, M. S. (1994). The nature and development of pre service science teachers’ conceptions of subject matter and pedagogy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 129-146. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310205
Lee, E. & Luft, J. A. (2008). Experienced secondary science teachers’ representation of pedagogical content knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1343-1363. doi:10.1080/09500690802187058.
Lee, E., Brown, M. N., Luft, J. A. & Roehrig, G. H. (2007). Assessing beginning secondary science teachers’ PCK: Pilot year results. School Science and Mathematics, 107(2), 52-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2007.tb17768.x.
Levy, P. & Petrulis, R. (2012). How do first-year university students experience inquiry and research, and what are the implications for the practice of inquiry-based learning? Studies in Higher Education, 37(1), 85-101. doi:10.1080/03075079.2010.499166
Loughran, J., Berry, A. & Mulhall, P. (2012). Understanding and developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Rotterdam/Boston: Sense Publishers, Tape 1, Volume 12.
Loughran, J., Gustone, R., Berry, A., Milroy, P. & Mulhall, P. (2000). Documenting science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through PaP-eRs. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New Orleans, April, 2000.
Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J. & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome and N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge. The Construct and Its Implications for Science Education, pp. 95-132. Dordrecht. Kluwer.
Marks, R. (1990). Pedagogical content knowledge: From a mathematical case to a modified conception. Journal of Teacher Education, 41(3), 3-11. doi: 10.1177/002248719004100302
Matese, G. (2005). Cognitive Factors Affecting Teaching Formative Assessment Practice, Paper Presented at the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
Ministry of National Education. (2013). Elementary science curriculum of institutions. Talim Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara: Turkey.
Mulhall, P., Berry, A. & Loughran, J. (2003). Frameworks for representing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Asia-Pacific on Science Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 1-25.
Nillsoon, P. & Loughran, J. (2012). Exploring the development of pre-service science elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Journal Science Teacher Education, 23, 699-721. doi: 10.1007/s10972-011-9239-y.
Nilsson, P. (2008).Teaching for understanding: The complex nature of pedagogical content knowledge in pre-service education. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1281-1299.doi: 10.1080/09500690802186993.
Park, S. & Chen, Y. C. (2012). Mapping out the integration of the components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): Examples from high school biology classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(7), 922-941. doi: 10.1002/tea.21022.
Park, S. & Oliver, J. S. (2008a). National board certification (NBC) as a catalyst for teacher’s learning about teaching: The effects of the NBC process on candidate teacher’s PCK development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(7), 812-834. doi: 10.1002/tea.20234.
Park, S. & Oliver, J. S. (2008b). Revisiting the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): PCK as a conceptual tool to understand teachers as professionals. Research Science Education, 38, 261-284. doi: 10.1007/s11165-007-9049-6.
Qablan, A. M. & DeBaz, T. (2015). Facilitating elementary science teachers’ implementation of inquiry-based science teaching. Teacher Development: An International Journal of Teachers' Professional Development, 19(1), 3-21.
Ramnarain, U. & Schuster, D. (2014). The pedagogical orientations of South African physical sciences teachers towards inquiry or direct instructional approaches. Research Science Education, 44, 627-650. doi: 10.1007/s11165-013-9395-5.
Rollnick, M., Bennett, J., Rhemtula, M., Dharsey, N. & Ndlovu, T.(2008). Substantive-level theory of highly regarded secondary biology teachers’ science teaching orientations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(2), 218-244. doi: 10.1002/tea.20046.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and training: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.
Smith, D. & Neale, D. (1991). The construction of subject matter knowledge in primary science teaching, (In) J. Brophy (Ed.) Advances in Research on Teaching, Vol.2 London, JAI Press.
Smith, D. C. (1999). Changing our teaching: The role of pedagogical content knowledge in elementary science. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its implications for science education, pp.163-197. Boston: Kluwer.
Sperandeo-Mineo, R. M., Fazio, C. & Tarantino, G. (2005). Pedagogical content knowledge development and pre-service physics teacher education: A case study. Research in Science Education, 36(3), 235-268. doi: 10.1007/s11165-005-9004-3.
Tabachnick, B. R. & Zeichner, K. M. (1999). Idea and action: Action research and the development of conceptual change teaching of science. Science Education, 83(2), 309-322. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199905)83:3<309::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-1.
Tamir, P. (1988). Subject matter and related pedagogical knowledge in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(2), 99-110. doi:10.1016/0742-051X(88)90011-X.
vanDriel, J. H., Verloop, N. & De Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 673-695.
Veal, W. R. & Kubasko, D. S. (2003). Biology and geology teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of evolution. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(4), 334-352.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and Methods (3rd Ed.). United States of America: Applied social research methods series v.5.
Erol TAŞ, Salih GÜLEN, Zeynep ÖNER, Cengiz ÖZYÜREK
Florentina Cañada CAÑADA, David GONZÁLEZ-GÓMEZ , Diego AIRADO-RODRÍGUEZ , Lina Viviana Melo NIÑO , María Antonia Dávila ACEDO