|Pages||675 - 686|
|Issue||IEJEE, Volume 8, Issue 4|
|Date of acceptance||18 June 2016|
This study aimed to establish the possible relationships between reading comprehension competence, reading attitude and the vividness of mental imagery among Turkish fourth-grade students. Participants were fourth grade students, selected using convenience sampling from two different public schools (n=103) in Bartin, Turkey. The research was designed as a correlational study to describe the degree to which two or more quantitative variables are related; this was achieved by using a correlation coefficient. The data gathering tools used in this study were (1): the Reading Comprehension Test (RCT), which was developed by the researcher and which includes both factual and inferential questions; (2) the Vividness of Imagery Questionnaire (VIQ), developed by Sheveland (1992); (3) the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS), developed by McKenna and Kear (1990). Multiple linear regressions were used for data analysis. The analysis revealed that reading attitude and vividness of mental imagery were significant predictors for students’ reading comprehension competencies. In addition, the results indicated that approximately 14% of the variance in reading comprehension competence could be explained by reading attitude and vividness of mental imagery [R=.369, R2=.136, F(2-96)=7.578, p<.01].
|Pages||675 - 686|
|Issue||IEJEE, Volume 8, Issue 4|
|Date of acceptance||18 June 2016|
Alexander, J.E. & Filler, R.C. (1976). Attitudes and reading. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Alfassi, M. (2004). Reading to learn: Effects of combined strategy instruction on high school students. Journal of Educational Research, 97(4), 171-184. doi:10.3200/JOER.97.4.171-185
Altman, D.G. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.
Baumann, J. F. (2009). Intensity in vocabulary instruction and effects on reading comprehension. Topics in Language Disorders, 29(4), 312-328. Doi: 10.1097/TLD.0b013e3181c29e22
Conlon, EG. Zimmer-Gembeck, MJ., Creed, PA. & Tucker, M. (2006). Family history, self-perceptions, attitudes and cognitive abilities are associated with early adolescent reading skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(1), 11-32. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00290.x
Cramer, E. H. (1980). Mental imagery, reading attitude and comprehension. Reading Improvement, 17(2), 135-139. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ225276
Diamond, P.J. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2001). Factors Associated with Reading Achievement and Attitude among Elementary. School-Aged Students. Research in the Schools, 8(1), 1-11. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ663797
Durkin, D. (1993). Teaching them to reading (6th ed.) .Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Eagly, A. H. & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Fraenkel, J., Wallen, N. & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.
Gambrell, L.B. & Bales, R.J. (1986). Mental imagery and the comprehension-monitoring performance of fourth and fifth-grade poor readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 454-464. Doi: 10.2307/747616
George D. & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows Step By Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Goetz, E. T., Sadoski, M., Olivarez, Jr., A., Calero-Breckheimer, A., Garner, P., Fatemi, Z. (1992). The structure of emotional response in reading a literary text: Quantitative and qualitative analyses. Reading Research Quarterly, 27(4), 360- 372. Doi: 10.2307/747675
Gordon, R. (1972). A Very private world. In P.W. Sheehan (Ed), The
function of nature of imagery (pp. 64-82). New York: Academic Press.
Green, S. B. & Salkind, N. J. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Harris, T. L., Hodges, R. E. & International Reading Association. (1981). A Dictionary of reading and related terms. Newark, Del: International Reading Association.
Hodes, C. L. (1990). The induction use, and effectiveness of mental imagery as an instructional variable. Dissertation Abstracts International, 5109A, 3017.
Irwin, J. W. (1979). College readers' mental imagery, reading ability and attitude toward reading. Reading Improvement, 16(2), 124-129. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ207922
Jenkins, M. H. (2009). The effects of using mental imagery as a comprehension strategy for middle school students reading science expository texts. (Doctoral dissertation) http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/handle/1903/9551/Jenkins
Kendall, M.G. (1955). Rank Correlation Methods. New York: Hafner.
Kocaarslan, M. (2014, May). The Turkish adaptation of the Elementary Reading Attitude Scale: A validity and reliability study. Paper presented at the 13rd National Primary Teaching Symposium. Kütahya, Turkey.
Kocaarslan, M. (2015). The impact of teaching mental imagery on reading
comprehension skills of fourth graders. (Doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Image and mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Levin, J. R. (1981). On functions of picture in prose. In F. Pirozzolo & M. Wittrock (eds.), Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading (pp. 203-288). New York: Academic Press.
Long, S. A., Winograd, P. N. & Bridge, C. A. (1989). The effects of reader and text characteristics on imagery reported during and after reading. Research Quarterly, 24(3), 353-372. Doi: 10.2307/747774
Macomber, C. (2001). The use of mental imagery and its relation to reading attitudes among fourth grade students. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProOuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3004915)
Marks, D. F. (1990). On the relationship between imagery, body, and mind. In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks & J. E. Richardson (eds.), Imagery: Current developments, (pp. 1-38). New York: Routledge.
Martínez, RS., Aricak, OT. & Jewell, J. (2008). Influence of reading attitude on reading achievement: A test of the temporal-interaction model. Psychology in the Schools, 45(10), 1010-1023. doi:10.1002/pits.20348
Mason, L. H. (2004). Explicit self-regulated strategy development versus reciprocal questioning: Effects on expository reading comprehension among struggling readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 283-296.
McKenna, M. C. & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher. 43(9), 626-629. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20200500
McKenna, M., Kear, D. & Ellsworth, R. A. (1995). Children's attitudes toward reading: A national survey. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 934-956. Doi: 10.2307/748205
Nation, K. (2005). Children's reading comprehension difficulties. In M. J. Snowing and C. Hulme (eds.) The Science of Reading: A Handbook (pp. 248-266). Oxford: Blackwell.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Oakhill, J. & Patel, S. (1991). Can imagery training help children who have comprehension problems? Journal of Research in Reading, 14(2), 106-115. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.1991.tb00012.x
Ogle, L. T., Sen, A., Pahlke, E., Jocelyn, L., Kastberg, D., Roey, S. & Williams, T. (2003).International comparisons in fourth-grade reading literacy: Findings from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study of 2001. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003073.pdf
Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Pressley, G.M. (1976). Mental imagery helps eight-year-olds remember what they read. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 355-359. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext /ED123595.pdf
Quarterly, 21, 454-464. Gambrell, L.B. & Jawitz, P.B. (1993). Mental imagery, text illustrations, and children's story comprehension and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 264-276. Doi: 10.2307/747998
RAND Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: Office of Education Research and Improvement. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mr1465oeri
Reutzel, D. R. & Cooter, R. B. (2012). Teaching children to read: The teacher makes the difference. Boston: Pearson.
Rose, D. S., Parks, M., Androes, K. & McMahon, S. D. (2000). Imagery-based learning: Improving elementary students' reading comprehension with drama techniques. Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 55-64. Doi: 10.1080/00220670009598742.
Sadoski, M. (1983). An exploratory study of the relationships between reported imagery and the comprehension and recall of a story. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 110-123. Doi: 10.2307/747341
Sadoski, M. & Paivio, A. (2001). Imagery and text: A Dual Coding Theory of
reading and writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc
Sheveland, D. E. (1992, December). Development of Sheveland Vividness of Imagery Questionnaire in Grades 3-6. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Antonio, USA. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352634.pdf
Smith, M. C. (1990). A longitudinal investigation of reading attitude development from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Educational Research, 83, 215–219. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27540386
Snow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Snow, C.E., Burns, S. & Griffin, P. (eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Stahl, S. A. & Nagy, W. E. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Tankersley, K. (2003). The threads of reading: Strategies for literacy development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Woolley, G. (2011). Reading comprehension: Assisting children with learning difficulties. New York: Springer.