A Metacognitive Visuospatial Working Memory Training For Children


Sara CAVIOLA, Irene C. MAMMARELLA, Cesare CORNOLDI, Daniela LUCANGELI


Abstract

The paper studies whether visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and, specifically, recall of sequential-spatial information, can be improved by metacognitive training. Twenty-two fourth-grade children were involved in seven sessions of sequential-spatial memory training, while twenty-four children attended lessons given by their teacher. The posttraining evaluation demonstrated a specific improvement of performances in the Corsi blocks task, considered a sequential-spatial working memory task. However, no benefits of training were observed in either a verbal working memory task or a simultaneous-spatial working memory task. The results have important theoretical implications, in the study of VSWM components, and educational implications, in catering for children with specific VSWM impairments.


Keywords

Visuospatial Working Wemory, Metacognitive Treatment, Sequential-Spatial

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 122 - 136
Issue IEJEE, Volume 2, Issue 1, Special Issue Metacognition
Date of acceptance 01 October 2009
Read (times) 694
Downloaded (times) 266

Author(s) Details

Sara CAVIOLA

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Padova, Italy, Italy


Irene C. MAMMARELLA

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Padova, Italy, Italy


Cesare CORNOLDI

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Italy, Italy


Daniela LUCANGELI

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Padova, Italy, Italy


References

Allen, B. A., & Armour-Thomas, E. (1993). Construct validation of metacognition. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 127(2), 203–211.

Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Borkowski, J. G., Millstead, M. and Hale, C. (1988). Components of children’s metamemory: Implications for strategy generalization. In F. Weirnt and M. Permultter (Eds.), Memory development individual differences and universal changes. Hillsdale: LEA.

Brown, A. L. (1975). The development of memory: knowing, knowing about knowing and knowing how to know. In H. W. Reese (Eds.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior: Vol. 10. New York: Academic Press.

Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65–116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Carretti, B., Borella, E., & De Beni, R. (2007). Does Strategic Memory Training Improve the Working Memory Performance of Younger and Older Adults? Experimental Psychology, 54, 311-320.

Cavallini, E., Pagnin, A., & Vecchi, T. (2003). Aging and every-day memory: The beneficial effect of memory training. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 37, 241-257.

Cornoldi, C. (1990). Metacognitive control processes and memory deficits in poor comprehenders. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 13, 245-255.

Cornoldi, C. (1998). The impact of metacognitive reflection on cognitive control. In G. Mazzoni & T.O. Nelson (Eds.). Metacognition and Cognitive Neuropsychology (pp. 139-159). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum,.

Cornoldi, C., & Vecchi, T. (2003). Visuospatial working memory and individual differences. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Cornoldi, C., Venneri, A., Marconato, F., Molin, A., & Montinari, C. (2003). A rapid screening measure for teacher identification of visuo-spatial learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 299-306.

Corsi, P. M. (1972). Human Memory and the Medial Temporal Region of the Brain. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Della Sala, S., Gray, C., Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, L. (1997). Visual Pattern Test. Bury St Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company.

Flavell, J. H. (1971). First discussant's comments: What is memory development the development of? Human Development, 14, 272-278.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive development inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.

Flavell, J. H., & Wellman, H. M. (1977). Metamemory. In R. V. Kail, Jr. & J. W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211,245.

Hacker, D. J. (1998). Definitions and empirical foundations. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 1–23). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kessels, R. P. C., De Haan, E. H. F., Kappelle, L. J., & Postma, A. (2002a). Selective impairments in spatial memory after ischaemic stroke. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 115-129.

Kessels, R. P. C., Kappelle, L. J., De Haan, E. H. F., & Postma, A. (2002b). Lateralization of spatial memory processes: Evidence on spatial span, maze learning, and memory for object locations. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1465-1473.

Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., Gillberg, C. G., Forssberg, H., & Westerberg, H. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD – A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 177-186.

Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., & Westerberg, H. (2002). Training of working memory in children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 781-891.

Kluwe, R. H. (1987). Executive decisions and regulation of problem solving behaviour. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 1–19). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lecerf, T., & de Ribaupierre, A. (2005). Recognition in a visuospatial memory task: The effect of presentation. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 17, 47-75.

Logie, R. H. (1995). Visuo spatial working memory. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Logie, R.H., & Pearson, D.G. (1997). The inner eye and inner scribe of visuo-spatial working memory: Evidence from developmental fractionation. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9, 241-257. Mammarella, I. C., Coltri, S., Lucangeli, D., & Cornoldi, C. (in press). Impairment of simultaneous-spatial working memory in nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disability: A treatment case study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.

Mammarella, I. C., Cornoldi, C., Pazzaglia, F., Toso, C., Grimoldi, M., & Vio, C. (2006). Evidence for a double dissociation between spatial-simultaneous and spatialsequential working memory in visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabled children. Brain and Cognition, 62. 58-67.

Mammarella, I. C., Pazzaglia. F., & Cornoldi, C. (2008). Evidence for different components in children’s visuospatial working memory. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 337-355.

Mammarella, N., Cornoldi, C., & Donadello, E. (2003). Visual but not spatial working memory deficit in children with spina bifida. Brain and Cognition, 53, 311-314.

McNamara, D. S., & Scott, J. L. (2001). Working memory capacity and strategy use. Memory & Cognition, 29, 10-17.

Moely, B. E., Hart, S. S., Leal, L., Santulli, K. A., Rao, N., Johnson, T., & Hamilton, L. B. (1992). The teacher’s role in facilitating memory and study strategy development in the elementary school classroom. Child Development, 63, 653-672.

Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 26). New

York: Academic Press.

Olesen, P., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Increased prefronatal and parietal brain activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 75-79.

Pazzaglia, F., & Cornoldi, C. (1999). The role of distinct components of Visuo-Spatial Working Memory in the processing of texts. Memory, 7, 19-41.

Pickering, S. J., Gathercole, S. E., Hall, M., & Lloyd, S. A. (2001). Development of memory for pattern and path: Further evidence for the fractionation of visual and spatial short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 397-420.

Postma, A., & De Haan, E. H. F. (1996). What was there? Memory for object locations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 178-199.

Reder, L. Y., & Schunn, C. D. (1996). Metacognition does not imply awareness: Strategy choice is governed by implicit learning and memory. In L. Y. Reder (Ed.), Implicit memory and metacognition. Mahah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rourke, B. P. (1995). Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations. New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press. Singer, T., Lidenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2003). Plasticity of memory for new learning in very old age: A story of major loss? Psychology and Aging, 18, 306-317.

Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking Styles. Cambridge, MA, USA: University Press.

Vadhan, V., & Stander, P. (1994). Metacognitive ability and test performance among college students. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 128(3), 307-309.

Verhaeghen, P., Marcoen, A., & Grossen, L. (1992). Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: A meta-analytic study. Psychology and Aging, 7, 242-251.

Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York, NY, USA: Psychological Corporation.

Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2007). Changes in cortical activity after training of working memory - a single - subject analysis. Physiology & Behavior, 92, 186-192.