Learner Autonomy, Self Regulation and Metacognition



Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989) study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005) focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007) examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989) believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.



Learner autonomy, Self Regulation, Metacognition

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 53 - 64
Issue IEJEE, Volume 2, Issue 1, Special Issue Metacognition
Date of acceptance 01 October 2009
Read (times) 558
Downloaded (times) 366

Author(s) Details


Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey, Turkey


Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1991). Social Cognitive Theory of Self Regulation. Organizational Human Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.

Benware, C. & Deci, E. (1984) Quality of Learning with an Active versus Passive Motivational Sets. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 755–765.

Borkowski, J. & Thorpe, P. (1994). Life Span Perspective on Underachievment in Self Regulation of Learning and Performance. In Dale Schunk and Barry Zimmerman (Eds.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65–116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chan, V. (2001) Learning Autonomously: The Learners’ Perspectives. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 25(3), 285–297.

Cresswell, J. W. (2002) Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement: NY: Sage.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational Processes Affecting Learning. The AmericanPsychologist, 41, 1040 – 1048.

Ertmer, P. A. & Newby, T. J. (1996). The expert learner: strategic, self-regulated, and reflective. Instructional Science 24, 1–24.

Krouse, J. H. & Krouse, H. J. (1981) Toward a Multimodal Theory of Academic Underachievement. Educational Psychologist, 16, 151–164.

Maxim, G. (2009) Dynamic Social Studies for Constructivist Classrooms. NJ: Prentice Hall.

McCombs, B. (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: A phenomenological view. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Meece, J. (1994) The Role of Motivation in Self Regulated Learning in Self Regulation Of Learning and Performance. In Dale Schunk and Barry Zimmerman. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Newman, R. (2002) How Self regulated Learners Cope with Academic Difficulty. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 132–138.

Paris, S. G. & Byrnes, J. P. (1989). The constructivist approach to self-regulation and learning in the classroom. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Selfregulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research and practice (pp. 169–200). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research Vol III. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.

Schunk, D. & Zimmerman, B. (1994). Self Regulation of Learning and Performance. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schunk, D., Pintrich, P. & Meece, J. (2007). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. NY: Prentice Hall.

Weiner, B. (2005). Social Motivation, Justice, and The Moral Emotions: An Attributional Approach. London: Routledge.

Zimmerman, B.J. (1986) Development of Self Regulated Learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 307–313.

Zimmerman, B.J. & Martinez –Pons, M. (1988). Construct Validation of a Strategy Model of Student Self Regulated Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology,73, 485–493.