A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling-A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

Meral ÖZERK, Kamil ÖZERK


Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1) In Vivo Modeling and 2) Video Modeling. These can be used a) to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b) to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and positive targeted results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Video modeling, Bilingual children with ASD, Prevalence of ASD in Norway.

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 83 - 98
Issue IEJEE, Volume 8, Issue 1
Date of acceptance 30 September 2015
Read (times) 690
Downloaded (times) 323

Author(s) Details


Department of Complex Learning Disabilities, Oslo, Norway


University of Oslo, Norway, Norway


Acar, C., & Diken, I. H. (2012). Reviewing instructional studies conducted using video modeling to children with autism. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4),            2731-2735.

Alcantara, P. R. (1994). Effects of videotape instructional packaging on purchasing skills of      children with autism. Exceptional Children, 61, 40—55

Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network (2014). Prevalence of    Autism Spectrum Disorders. Atlanta, GA: Child Disease Control and Prevention.

Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589-595.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-      modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73, 264-287.

Barnevik–Olsson, M., Gillberg, C. & Fernell, E. (2008). Prevalence of autism in children born   to Somali parents living in Sweden: a brief report. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 50, 598–601.

Charlop, M.H., Dennis, B., Carpenter, M.H., & Greenberg, A.L. (2010). Teaching socially expressive behaviors to children with autism through video modeling. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(3), 371-393.

Charlop, M. H., Gilmore, L., & Chang, G. T. (2009). Using video modeling to increase    variation in the conversation of children with autism. Journal of Special Education Technology, 23(3), 47-66.

Charlop, M. H., Kurtz, P. F., & Casey, F. G. (1990). Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(2), 163-181.

Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285.

Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30,  537-552.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E. & Heward, W. L.(2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd edition): Columbus, Ohio: Pearson & Merrill Prentice Hall.

D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11.

Fombonne, E., Simmons, H., Ford, T., Meltzer, H., & Goodman, R. (2001). Prevalence of developmental disorders in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 820-827

Fombonne, E. (2005). Epidemological studies of pervasive developmental disorders. F. Volkmar, R. Raol, A. Klin & D. Cohen (eds.): Handbook of Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Gillberg, C., Steffenburg, G., Börjesson, B. & Andersson, I. (1987). Infantile autism in children with immigrant parents: A population based study from Göteborg, Sweden.     British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 856-858.

Goodman, R. & Richards, H. (1995). Child and adolescent psychiatric presentations of second-generation Afro-Caribbians. Britain. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 362-369.


Grinker, R., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., & Boyle, C. (2011). Culture and autism spectrum disorders:    The impact on prevalence and recognition. In D. Amaral, G. Dawson, & D. Geschwind (Eds.): Autism spectrum disorders (pp. 112–136). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gundersen, T. & Hem K-G (2005). Brukerundersøkelse blant personer med diagnose innen autismespekteret. Erfaringer med Autismenettverket- 09-15 STF78 A054504.

Haring, T. G., & Lovinger, L. (1989). Promoting social interaction through teaching       generalized play initiation responses to preschool children with autism. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14, 58–67.

Huaqing Qi, C. & Lin, Y-L. (2012). Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Video Modeling on Social and Communication Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4518 – 4523.

Hodgdon, L. (1995). Visual strategies for improving communication. Troy, MI: QuirkRoberts Publishing.

Isaksen, J. (2010). Presentasjon av resultater fra autisme undersøkelsen i Oppland og Hedmark. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/distrikt/hedmark_og_oppland/1.7408020.   2.12.2010

Jahr, E., Eldevik, S. & Eikeseth, S. (2000). Teaching children with autism to initiate and sustain cooperative play. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21(2), 151-169.

Jepson, B. & Johnson, J. (2007). Changing The Course of Autism. A Scientific Approach for Parents and Physicians. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications.

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Kim. Y. S., Leventhal, B. L., Koh, Y. J., Fombonne, E., Laska, E., Lim, E. C., Cheon, K. A., Kim, S. J., Kim, Y. K., Lee, H., Song, D. H., Grinker, R. R.(2011). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a total population sample. American Journal of Psychiatry. 168(9), 904-912.

Lydon , H. , Healy , O. , & Leader , G . (2011). A comparison of video modeling and pivotal response training to teach pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5 , 872 – 884.

MacDonald, R., Clark, M., Garrigan, E., & Vangala, M. (2005). Using video modeling to teach pretend play to children with autism. Journal of Behavioral Interventions, 20, 225-238.

MacDonald, R., Sacramone, S., Mansfield, R, Wiltz, K., Aheam, W. H., & Taylor, B. (2009). Using video modeling to teach reciprocal pretend play to children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(1), 43-55.

Nikopoulous, C. K. & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 93-96.

Nikopoulos, C. K. & Keenan, M. (2007). Using video modeling to teach complex social sequences to children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 678-693.

Nygren, G., Cederlund, M., Sandberg, E., Gillstedt, F., Arvidsson, T., Gillberg, I.C., Andersson, G. W. & Gillberg, C. (2012). The Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers: A Population Study of 2-Year-Old Swedish Children. Journal   of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(7), 1491-1497.

Ozen, A., Batu, S., & Birkan, B. (2012). Teaching play skills to children with autism through      video     modeling: Small group arrangement and observational learning. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(1), 84-96.

Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-             functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child                Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 1081-1105.

Özerk, M. & Özerk, K. (2013). Autisme og pedagogikk. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Paterson , C. R. , & Arco , L . (2007). Using video modeling for generalizing toy play in children with autism. Behavior Modification, 31 ,660 – 681 .

Plavnick, J. B. & Ferreri, S. J. (2011). Establishing Verbal Repertoires In Children With Autism Using Function-Based Video Modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(4), 747-766.

Quill, K. A. (1997). Instructional considerations for young children with autism: The rationale for visually cued instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 697-714.

Rayner, C. S. (2010). Video-modeling to improve task completion in a child with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13(3), 225-230.

Sallows, G. O. & Graupner, T. D. (2012). Autism Spectrum Disorders. In M. Hersen. & P. Sturmey (Eds.): Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Volume 1, Child and Adolescent Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Scheflen, S., Freeman, S. N., & Paparella, T. (2012). Using video modeling to teach young            children with autism developmentally appropriate play and connected Speech.               Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(3), 302-318.

Seung, B. , Siddiqi, S. & Edler, J. H. E. (2006). Intervention Outcomes of a Bilingual Child with Autism. Journal of Medical Speech-language Pathology, 14(1), 53-62.

Sherer, M., Pierce, K. I., Paredes, S., Kisacky, K. L., Ingersoll, B., Schreibman, L. (2001). Enhancing conversation skills in children with autism via video technology: Which is better, “self” or “other” as a model. Behavior Modification, 25, 140–158.

Shipley-Benamou, R., Lutzker, J. R., & Taubman, M. (2002). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism through instructional video modeling. Journal of Positive              Behavior Interventions, 4, 165-175.

Statistisk Sentral Byrå (2014). Population 01.01.2014.

Steinborn, M., & Knapp, T. J. (1982). Teaching an autistic child pedestrian skills. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 347–351.

Stoltenberg, C., Schjølberg, S., Bresnahan, M., Hornig, M., Hirtz, D., Dahl, C., Kveim Lie, K., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., Schreuder, P., Alsaker, E., Øyen, A-S., Magnus, P., Surén, P., Susser, E. Lipkin, I.& the ABC Study Group (2010). The Autism Birth       Cohort: a paradigm for gene–environment–timing research. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 676-680.

Surén, P., Bakken, I. J., Lie, K. K., Schjølberg, S., Aase, H., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.,         Magnus, P., Øyen, A-S, Kveim Svendsen, B., Aaberg, K.M:, Andersen, L. G. &                Stoltenberg, C. (2013). Differences across counties in the registered prevalence of autism, ADHD, epilepsy and cerebral palsy in Norway. Tidsskrift for Norsk Laegeforening, 133(18), 1929-34.

Taylor, B. A., Levin, L., & Jasper, S. (1999). Increasing play-related statements in children with autism toward their siblings: Effects of video modeling.  Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11(3), 253-264.

The National Autism Center’s National Standards Report, 2009.

Townsend, J. & Westerfield, M. (2010). Autism and Asperger’s syndrome: A cognitive  neuroscience perspective. In C. L. Armstrong & C. Marrow (Eds.): Handbook of medical neuropsychology, 165-191, New York: Springer.

Wert B. & Neisworth J. (2003). Effects of video self modeling on spontaneous requesting in      children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 30–34.

Wilson, K. P. (2013). Incorporating video modeling into a school-based intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44(1), 105-117.

Yeargin,-Allsopp, M., Rice, C. Karapukar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C. & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a U.S.metropolitan area. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1), 49-55.