Children's Metamemory: A Review of the Literature and Implications for the Classroom


Kristen KARABLY, Karen M. ZABRUCKY


Abstract

In this paper we examine the development of children's metamemory and provide practical implications of research findings for the classroom. In the first part of the paper we define and discuss the global concept of metacognition, the component processes of metacognition and the importance of each component to children's learning. We then examine the development of children's knowledge about memory and ability to monitor memory (i.e., metamemory). We focus, in particular, on seven major research themes: children's metamemory develops with age and experience, younger children are less aware than older children of the benefits of categorization on recall, younger children use different strategies than older children, children's causal attributions may affect metamemory, instructional interventions must be appropriately timed, children will show more strategy transfer when explicit instructions are provided and children overestimate their memory ability. We discuss implications of these major themes for teachers of young children.

 


Keywords

Metamemory, Metacognition

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic Environmental Education
Pages 32 - 52
Issue IEJEE, Volume 2, Issue 1, Special Issue Metacognition
Date of acceptance 01 October 2009
Read (times) 1320
Downloaded (times) 309

Author(s) Details

Kristen KARABLY

Georgia State University, United States, United States


Karen M. ZABRUCKY

Georgia State University, United States, United States


References

Andreassen, C., & Waters, H. S. (1989). Organization during study: relationships between metamemory, strategy use, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 190-195.

Baker-Ward, L., Ornstein, P. A., & Holden, D. J. (1984). The expression of memorization in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 555-575.

Bjorklund, D. F. (1980). Children's identification of category relations in lists presented for recall. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 136, 45-53.

Bjorklund, D. F., Dukes, C., & Brown, R. D. (2009). The development of memory strategies. In M. L. Courage & N. Cowan (Eds.). The Development of Memory in Infancy and Childhood (pp. 146-175). Hove and New York: Psychology Press.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Zaken-Greenberg, F. (1981). The effects of differences in classification style on preschool children's memory. Child Development, 52, 888-894.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Zeman, B. R. (1982). Children's organization and metamemory awareness in their recall of familiar information. Child Development, 53, 799-810.

Borkowski, J. G., & Muthukrishna, N. (1992). Moving metacognition into the classroom: "Working models" and effective strategy teaching. In M. Pressley, K. R. Harris, & J. T. Guthrie (Eds.). Promoting Academic Competence and Literacy in School (pp. 477-501). Toronto: Academic Press.

Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C., & Barclay, C. R. (1979). Training self-checking routines for estimating test readiness: generalization from list learning to prose recall. Child Development, 50, 501-512.

Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C., & Murphy, M. D. (1977). Maintenance and generalization of trained metamnemonic awareness by educable retarded children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 191-211.

Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245-281.

Butterfield, E. C., Nelson, T. 0., & Peck, V. (1988). Developmental aspects of the feeling-ofknowing. Developmental Psychology, 24, 654-663.

Cavanaugh, J. C., & Perlmutter, M. (1982). Metamemory: A critical examination. Child Development, 53, 11-28.

Chi, M. T. H. (1987). Representing knowledge and meta-knowledge: implications for interpreting metamemory research. In R. H. Kluwe & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), Metacognition, Motivation, and Understanding (pp. 239-266). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Eribaum Associates, Inc.

Cultice, J. C., Somerville, S. C., & Wellman, H. M. (1983). Preschoolers' memory monitoring: feeling-of-knowing judgments. Child Development, 54, 1480-1486.

Dunlosky, J., & Metcalfe, J. (2009). Metacognition. Los Angeles: Sage.

Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13, 277-287.

Efklides, A. (2009). The role of metacognitive experiences in the learning process. Psicothema, 21, 76-82.

Fabricius, W. V., & Cavalier, L. (1989). The role of causal theories about memory in young children's memory strategy choice. Child Development, 60, 298-308.

Flavell, J. (1971). First discussant's comments: What is memory development the development of? Human Development, 14, 272-278.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitivedevelopmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34 (10), 906-911.

Flavell, J. H., Friedrichs, A., & Hoyt, J. (1970). Developmental changes in memorization processes. Cognitive Psychology, I, 324-340.

Flavell, J. H., Miller, P. H., & Miller, S. A. (2002). Cognitive Development. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Flavell, J., & Wellman, H. (1977). Metamemory. In R. V. Kail, & J. W. Hagen (Eds.). Perspectives on the Development of Memory and Cognition (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Eribaum Associates, Inc.

Ghatala, E. S. (1986). Strategy-monitoring training enables young learners to select effective strategies. Educational Psychologist, 21, 43-54.

Ghatala, E. S., Levin, J. R., Pressley, M., & Goodwin, D. (1986). A componential analysis of the effects of derived and supplied strategy and utility information on children's strategy selections. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 76- 92.

Ghatala, E. S., Levin, J. R., Pressley, M., & Lodico, M. G. (1985). Training cognitive strategy monitoring in children. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 199-215.

Henry, L. A. & Norman, T. (1996). The relationships between memory performance, use of simple memory strategies and metamemory in young children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19, 177-199.

Kail, R. (1990). The Development of Memory in Children. (3'd ed.). New York: W. H. Freemen and Company.

Koriat, A., Goldsmith, M., & Pansky, A. (2000). Toward a psychology of memory accuracy. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 51, 481-537.

Kreutzer, M. A., Leonard, C., & Ravell J. H. (1975). An interview study of children's knowledge about memory. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 40,1-58.

Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2002). Developmental trends in children's feeling-of –knowing judgments. International Journal of Behavior Development, 26, 327-333.

Lovett, S. B., & Ravelljhh, J. H. (1990). Understanding and remembering: children's knowledge about the differential effects of strategy and task variables on comprehension and memorization. Child Development, 61, 1842-1858.

Moynahan, E. D. (1973). The development of knowledge concerning the effect of categorization upon free recall. Child Development, 44, 238-246.

Moynahan, E. D. (1978). Assessment and selection of paired associate strategies: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 257-266.

Nelson, T. 0., & Dunlosky, J. (1991) When people's judgments of learning (JOLs) are extremely accurate at predicting subsequent recall: the "delayed-JOL effect". Psychological Science, 2, 267-270.

O'Sullivan, J. T. (1996). Children's metamemory about the influence of conceptual relations on recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 62, 1-29.

O'Sullivan, J. T., Howe, M. L., & Marche, T. A. (1996). Children's beliefs about long-term retention. Child Development, 67, 2989-3009.

Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory Into Practice, 41 (4), 219-225.

Pressley, M., Borkowski, J. G., & O'Sullivan, J. (1980). Children's metamemory and the teaching of memory strategies. In Forrest-Pressley, MacKinnon, Waller (Eds.). Metacognition, Cognition, and Human Performance (pp. 111-153). Orlando:

Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & Ghatala, E. S. (1984). Memory strategy monitoring in adults and children. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 270-288.

Pressley, M., Ross, K. A., Levin, J. R., & Ghatala, E. S. (1984). Increasing the use of strategy-utility knowledge in children's strategy decision making. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38, 491-504.

Salatas, H., & Flavell, J. H. (1976). Behavioral and metamnemonic indicators of strategic behaviors under remember instructions in first grade. Child Development, 47, 81-89.

Schneider, W. (1985). Developmental trends in the metamemory-memory behavior relationship: An integrative review. In D. L. Forrest-Pressley, G. E. MacKinnon, & T. G. Waller (Eds.), Metacognition, Cognition, and Human Performance (vol. 1, p. 57-109). Orlando, FL: Academic press.

Schneider, W. (1986). The role of conceptual knowledge and metamemory in the development of organizational processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 218-236.

Schneider, W. (1998). The development of procedural metamemory in childhood and adolescence. In G. Mazzoni & T. 0. Nelson (Eds.), Metacognition and Cognitive Neuropsychology (pp. 1-21). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schneider, W. (2008). The development of metacognitive knowledge in children and adolescents: Major trends and implications for education. Mind, Body, and Education, 2, 114-121.

Schneider, W., & Lockl, K. (2008). Procedural metacognition in children; Evidence for developmental trends. In J. Dunlosky & R.. A. Bjork (Eds.), Handbook of Metamemory and Memroy (pp. 391-409). New York: Psychology Press.

Schneider, W., & Pressley, M. (1997). Memory Development between Two and Twenty (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schneider, W., & Sodian, B. (1988). Metamemory-memory behavior relationships in young children: evidence from a memory-for-location task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45, 209-233.

Schneider, W., Vise, M., Locld, K., & Nelson, T. 0. (2000). Developmental trends in children's memory monitoring: evidence from a judgment-of-learning task. Cognitive Development, 15, 115-134.

Short, E., Schatschneider, C., & Friebert, S. (1993). Relationship between memory and metamemory performance: a comparison of specific and general strategy knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 412-423.

Weed, K., Ryan, E. B., & Day, J. (1990). Metamemory and attributions as mediators of strategy use and recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 849-855.

Wellman, H. M. (1977). Tip of the tongue and feeling of knowing experiences; a developmental study of memory monitoring. Child Development, 48, 13-21.

Yussen, S. R., & Bird, E. J. (1979). The development of metacognitive awareness in memory, communication, and attention. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 300-313.

Yussen, S. R., & Levy, V. M. Jr. (1975). Developmental changes in predicting one's own span of short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 19, 502-508.

Related Papers