Investigation of Teachers’ Mathematics Teaching Self-efficacy



The aim of this research is to investigate primary school teachers’ characteristics by comparing their mathematics teaching self-efficacy beliefs. In this research, qualitative research method is used. In order to determine the participant teachers, firstly, “Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Mathematics Teaching Scale” (Dede, 2008) was applied to 33 primary school teachers, at seven public primary schools, in Adana, Turkey, in 2011-2012 school years. Then, according to results of the scale, four teachers are chosen to carry out semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analysed by conducting qualitative analytic methods. The results demonstrated that teachers with a higher self-efficacy belief have some different characteristics to those with a lower self-efficacy belief such as showing a higher level of effort and persistence with students, being more open to new ideas and new methods, believing in students’ achievements and taking responsibility for students’ success, placing more importance on building a warm relationship with their students rather than with the parents.


Primary schools, Primary school teachers, Mathematics teaching, Self-efficacy belief.

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 21 - 40
Issue IEJEE, Volume 8, Issue 1
Date of acceptance 30 September 2015
Read (times) 941
Downloaded (times) 343

Author(s) Details


Gazi Univesity, Turkey


Akbari, R. & Allvar, N. K. (2010). L2 Teachers Characteristics as Predictors of Students’ Academic Achievement. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 13(4), 1-22.

Allinder, R. M. (1994). The Relationship Between Efficacy and the Instructional Practices of Special Education Teachers and Consultants. Teachers Education and Special Education, 17(2), 86-95.

Altun, M. (2005). Matematik öğretimi: egitim fakülteleri ve ilköğretim öğretmenleri için. Bursa: Erkam Matbaacılık.

Anderson, G. & Arsenault, N. (1998). Fundamental of Educational Research. London and New York: Taylor & Francis.

Anderson, R., Greene, M. & Loewen, P. (1988). Relationships among teachers’ and students’ thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Education Research, 34(2),  148-165.

Ashton, P. T. (1985). Motivation and the teacher's sense of efficacy. In: Ames, C. and Ames, R. (eds.) Research on motivation in education, Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 141-171.

Ashton, P. T. & Webb, R. B. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.

Ashton, P. T., Olejnik, S., Crocker, L. & McAuliffe, M. (1982). Measurement problems in the study of teachers’ sense of efficacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Ashton, P. T., Webb, R. B., & Doda, N. (1983). A study of teacher sense of efficacy. Final Report, Gainesville: University of Florida.

Babaoğlan, E. & Korkut, K. (2010). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin öz-yeterlik inançları. International Journal of Management Economics and Business, 8(16), 269-281.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

Bandura, A. (1995). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In: Pajares, F. and Urdan, T. (eds.) Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents. USA: Information Age Publishing, p. 307-339. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 Aug 2012].

Bandura, A. (1996). Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement?. Psychological Inquiry, 7(1), 20-24.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass-Golod, G. V., Pauly, E. & Zellman, L. G. (1977.) Federal programs supporting educational change. Vol. VII: Factors affecting implementation and continuation. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 July 2012].

Borko, H. & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In: Berliner D. and Calfee R. (eds.) Handbook of educational psychology. NewYork: Macmillan, (p. 673–708).

Borko, H., Eisenhart, M., Brown, C. A., Underhill, R. G., Jones, D. & Agard, P. C. (1992). Learning to teach hard mathematics: Do novice teachers and their instructors give up too easily? Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23(3), 194-222.

Buyse, E., Verschueren, K., Verachtert, P. & Van Damme, J. (2009). Predicting school adjustment in early elementary school: Impact of teacher-child relationship quality and relational classroom climate. Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 119-141.

Çalışkan, N. & Yeşil, R. (2005). Eğitim Sürecinde Beden Dili. Gazi Üniversitesi Kırsehir Egitim Fakültesi, 6(1), 199-207.

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F. & Vigdor, J. L. (2006). How and Why Do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Finance Association, Colorado, March.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2005). Research Methods in Education, 5th edition, London: Routledge.

Dede, Y. (2008). Matematik öğretmenlerinin öğretimlerine yönelik öz-yeterlik inançlari. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(4), 741-757.

Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569–582.

Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher Efficacy, Self-Concept and Attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching & Teacher Education, 4(1), 63-69.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F. & Rivkin, S. G. (2005). Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement. Econometria, 73(2), 417-458.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C. & Brissie, S. J. (1987). Parent Involvement: Contributions of Teacher Efficacy, School Socioeconomic Status, and Other School Characteristics. American Educational Research Journal, 24, 417-435.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C. & Brissie, S. J. (1992). Explorations in Parent-School Relations. The Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 287-294. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 July 2012].

Moore, W. & Esselman, M. E. (1992). Teacher efficacy, power, school climate and achievement: A desegregating district’s experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, April.

Online. [Accessed: 30 Aug 2012].

Riggs, I. M. & Enochs, L. G. (1990). Toward the development of teacher’s science teaching efficacy belief instrument. Science Education, 74(6), 625-637.

Shechtman, Z., Levy, M. & Leichtentritt, J. (2005). Impact of Life Skills Training on teachers' perceived environment and self-efficacy. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 144-154.

Showalter, B. S. (2005). The effect of Middle School Teachers’ Mathematics Teaching Self-efficacy Beliefs on Their Students’ Attitudes Toward Mathematics. PhD thesis, University of Oklahoma.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher development and school improvement: The process of teacher change. Teaching & Teacher Education, 4(2), 171–187.

Tertemiz, N. & Şahinkaya, N. (2010). Proje ve etkinlik destekli öğretimin sinif öğretmeni adaylarinin matematik öğretimine yönelik yeterlik inançlarina etkisi. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Dergisi, 10(1), 87-98.

TIMSS (2011). TIMSS Contextual Framework. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30.April.2012].

Townsend, M., Moore, D., Tuck, B. & Wilton, K. (1998). Self-concept and anxiety in university students studying social science statistics within a co-operative learning structure. Educational Psychology, 18(1), 41-53. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 July 2012].

Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805.

Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A. & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202–248. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 30 July 2012].

Ware, H. & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and collective efficacy beliefs as predictors of professional commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 303-310.

Woolfolk, A. E. and Hoy, W. K. (1990) Prospective teachers' sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 81-91.