Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting


Kouider MOKHTARI , Joanna L. NEEL, Forrest KAISER, Hong-Hai Le


Abstract

In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read significantly more proficiently than did non-tutored students in a matched group of first grade peers in the same school. These results are encouraging in light of literacy research documenting the impact of one-on-one tutoring by qualified tutors of at-risk early grade readers. We used lessons learned from this pilot study to help inform and direct the necessary revisions and refinements of future reading interventions with the goal of building the school’s capacity to support the literacy development of at-risk readers so that they can catch up with their typically developing peers.

 


Keywords

Response to intervention, early literacy instruction, one-on-one tutoring, at-risk readers

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 281 - 300
Issue IEJEE, Volume 7, Issue 3
Date of acceptance 25 May 2015
Read (times) 771
Downloaded (times) 302

Author(s) Details

Kouider MOKHTARI

The University of Texas at Tyler, USA, United States


Joanna L. NEEL

The University of Texas at Tyler, United States, United States


Forrest KAISER

The University of Texas at Tyler, United States, United States


Hong-Hai Le

The University of Texas at Tyler, United States, United States


References

Allington, R. L., (2011). What At-Risk Readers Need. Best of Educational Leadership, 68, 40-45.

Allington, R., and Gabriel, R. (2012). Every child, every day. Educational Leadership, 69 (6), 10-15.

Allington, R., and McGill-Franzen, A. (2003). The Impact of Summer Setback on the Reading Achievement Gap. The Phi Delta Kappan, 85(1), 68-75

Allington, R.L. (2010). Essential readings on struggling readers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Allington, R.L. (2012). What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research-based programs. New York: Longman.

Au, K. (2011). Literacy achievement and diversity: Keys to success for students, teachers, and schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Clay, M. M. (2005). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Part one, why? when? how? Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann.

Cochran-Smith, M. (2004). Walking the road: Race, diversity, and social justice in teacher education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Coleman, D., & Pimentel, S. (2012). Revised Publishers’ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades K–2. The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Washington, DC.

Compton-Lilly, C.F. (2007). Re-Reading families: The literate lives of urban children four years later. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Compton-Lilly, C.F. (2009). Literacy practices of African American children: Three case studies. In G. Liu (Eds.), Multicultural families, home literacies, and mainstream schooling, (pp. 29 - 49). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Company.

Compton-Lilly, C.F. (2011). Counting the uncounted: African American students in one reading intervention. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. 11(1), 3 - 24.

Davidson, J. & Koppenhaver, D. (1993). Adolescent literacy: What works and why. New York: Garland.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London, England: Sage Publications.

Gorski, P. (2013). Reaching and Teaching Students in Poverty: Strategies for Erasing the Opportunity Gap. New York: Teachers College Press.

Guo, S. & Fraser, M.W. (2010). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Holdaway, D. (1979). The foundations of literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Institute of Education Sciences (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user friendly guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Invernizzi, M., Rosemary, C. A., Juel, C., & Richards, H. (1997). At-risk readers and community volunteers: A three year perspective. Journal of the Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 277-300.

Johnston, P.H. (2011). Response to intervention in literacy: Problems and possibilities. The Elementary School Journal, 111 (4), 511-534.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K., Dreyer, L. G., & Hughes, K. E. (2000). Gates-MacGinite Reading Tests (4th Edition). Rolling Meadows, IL. Riverside Publishing.

Mokhtari, K., Niederhauser, N., Beschorner, B., & Edwards, P. (2011). F.A.D.: A basic procedure for filtering, analyzing, and diagnosing students’ reading & writing difficulties. The Reading Teacher, 64 (8), 631-635.

National Center for Education Statistics (2011). The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2011 (NCES 2012–457). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

Pinnell, G. S., Fried, M. D., & Estice, R. M. (1990). Reading Recovery: Learning how to make a difference. The Reading Teacher, 43(4), 282–295.

Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., DeFord, D. E., Bryk, A. S., & Seltzer, M. (1994).  Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(1), 8–39. 

Roller, C. M. (1998). So… what’s a tutor to do?  Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Karweit, N. L., Livermon, B. J., & Dolan, L.  (1990). Success for all: First-year outcomes of a comprehensive plan for reforming urban education. American Education Research Journal, 27(2), 255–278.

Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Taylor, B. M., Critchley, C., Paulsen, K., MacDonald, K., & Miron, H. (2002). Learning to teach an early reading intervention program through Internet-supported professional development. Retrieved from EIR® website: http://www.earlyinterventioninreading.com/pdfs/taylor_research2.pdf.

Taylor, B.M. (2007). The what and the how of good classroom reading instruction in the elementary grades. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Center for Reading Research.

Taylor, B.M., Peterson, D. S., Pearson, P.D., & Rodriguez, M.C. (2010). Looking inside classrooms: Reflecting on the “how” as well as the “what” in effective reading instruction. In R.L Allington, Essential readings on struggling learners. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Trelease, J. (2013). The new read-aloud handbook. New York, NY: Penguin.

Wasik, B. A. (1998). Volunteer tutoring programs in reading: A review. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 266-292.

Wasik, B. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28(2), 178–20.