Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

Melanie KUHN , Timothy RASINSKI, Belinda ZIMMERMAN


Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text's meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text). They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners' reading success both within and outside of the classroom.


Reading Fluency, Struggling Readers, Reading Instruction, Oral Reading, Classroom Interventions, Accuracy, Automaticity, Prosody, Comprehension, Achievement Gains, Reading Ability, Teaching Methods, Repetition, Word Recognition

Paper Details

Paper Details
Topic EU Education Programs
Pages 71 - 81
Issue IEJEE, Volume 7, Issue 1, Special Issue Reading Fluency
Date of acceptance 01 October 2014
Read (times) 878
Downloaded (times) 359

Author(s) Details

Melanie KUHN

Boston University, Boston, MA, USA, United States


Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA, United States


Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA, United States



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